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but in ourselves:just as it is with bats' eyes in respect of daylight, so it is with our mental intelligence in respect of those things which are by nature most obvious.It is only fair to be grateful not only to those whose views we can share but also to those who have expressed rather superficial opinions. They too have contributed something; by their preliminary work they have formed our mental experience.If there had been no Timotheus,Of Miletus, 446 (?)—357 B.C. we should not possess much of our music; and if there had been no Phrynis,Of Mytilene; he is referred to as still alive in Aristoph. Cl. 971. Both Phrynis and Timotheus are criticized in the fragment of Pherecrates Chirontranslated by Rogers in the appendix to his ed. of the Clouds. there would have been no Timotheus. It is just the same in the case of those who have theorized about reality: we have derived certain vi
Mytilene (Greece) (search for this): book 2, section 993b
ence in respect of those things which are by nature most obvious.It is only fair to be grateful not only to those whose views we can share but also to those who have expressed rather superficial opinions. They too have contributed something; by their preliminary work they have formed our mental experience.If there had been no Timotheus,Of Miletus, 446 (?)—357 B.C. we should not possess much of our music; and if there had been no Phrynis,Of Mytilene; he is referred to as still alive in Aristoph. Cl. 971. Both Phrynis and Timotheus are criticized in the fragment of Pherecrates Chirontranslated by Rogers in the appendix to his ed. of the Clouds. there would have been no Timotheus. It is just the same in the case of those who have theorized about reality: we have derived certain views from some of them, and they in turn were indebted to others.Moreover, philosophy is rightly calleda knowledge o
:just as it is with bats' eyes in respect of daylight, so it is with our mental intelligence in respect of those things which are by nature most obvious.It is only fair to be grateful not only to those whose views we can share but also to those who have expressed rather superficial opinions. They too have contributed something; by their preliminary work they have formed our mental experience.If there had been no Timotheus,Of Miletus, 446 (?)—357 B.C. we should not possess much of our music; and if there had been no Phrynis,Of Mytilene; he is referred to as still alive in Aristoph. Cl. 971. Both Phrynis and Timotheus are criticized in the fragment of Pherecrates Chirontranslated by Rogers in the appendix to his ed. of the Clouds. there would have been no Timotheus. It is just the same in the case of those who have theorized about reality: we have derived certain views from some of
he same as one another, because they would have the same form of number; e.g., sun and moon would be the same.Cf. previous note. But why are these numbers causes? There are seven vowels,In the Greek alphabet. seven strings to the scale,In the old heptachord; cf. note on Aristot. Met. 5.11.4. seven Pleiads; most animals (though not allCf. Aristot. Hist. An. 576a 6.) lose their teeth in the seventh year; and there were seven heroes who attacked Thebes. Is it, then, because the number 7 is such as it is that there were seven heroes, or that the Pleiads consist of seven stars? Surely there were seven heroes because of the seven gates, or for some other reason, and the Pleiads are seven because we count them so; just as we count the Bear as 12, whereas others count more stars in both. Indeed, they assert also that *C, *Y and *Z are concords,According to Alexander Z was connected with the fourth, C with th
the sense of an element, and then deriving number from unity. The early poets agree with this view in so far as they assert that it was not the original forces—such as Night, Heaven, Chaos or Ocean—but Zeus who was king and ruler.It was, however, on the ground of the changing of the rulers of the world that the poets were led to state these theories; because those of them who compromise by not describing everything in mythological language—e.g. PherecydesOf Syros (circa 600-525 B.C.). He made Zeus one of the three primary beings (Diels,Vorsokratiker201, 202). and certain others—make the primary generator the Supreme Good; and so do the Magi,The Zoroastrian priestly caste. and some of the later philosophers such as Empedocles and Anaxagoras: the one making Love an element,Cf. Aristot. Met. 3.1.13. and the other making Mind a first principle.Cf. Aristot. Met. 1.3.16. And of those who hold that
ement, and then deriving number from unity. The early poets agree with this view in so far as they assert that it was not the original forces—such as Night, Heaven, Chaos or Ocean—but Zeus who was king and ruler.It was, however, on the ground of the changing of the rulers of the world that the poets were led to state these theories; because those of them who compromise by not describing everything in mythological language—e.g. PherecydesOf Syros (circa 600-525 B.C.). He made Zeus one of the three primary beings (Diels,Vorsokratiker201, 202). and certain others—make the primary generator the Supreme Good; and so do the Magi,The Zoroastrian priestly caste. and some of the later philosophers such as Empedocles and Anaxagoras: the one making Love an element,Cf. Aristot. Met. 3.1.13. and the other making Mind a first principle.Cf. Aristot. Met. 1.3.16. And of those who hold that unchangeable sub
) or its formal principle is in some sense distinct from that of the Ideal numbers. But this implies that unity is a kind of plurality, and number or plurality can only be referred to the dyad or material principle.All these views are irrational; they conflict both with one another and with sound logic, and it seems that in them we have a case of Simonides' "long storyThe exact reference is uncertain, but Aristotle probably means Simonides of Ceos. Cf. Simonides Fr. 189 (Bergk)."; for men have recourse to the "long story," such as slaves tell, when they have nothing satisfactory to say.The very elements too, the Great and Small, seem to protest at being dragged in; for they cannot possibly generate numbers except rising powers of 2.Assuming that the Great-and-Small, or indeterminate dyad, is duplicative (Aristot. Met. 13.7.18).It is absurd also, or rather it is one of the impossibilities of this
ound all the other spheres, and the sphere next in order, which has its motion in the circle which bisects the zodiac, is common to all the planets); the third sphere of all the planets has its poles in the circle which bisects the zodiac; and the fourth sphere moves in the circle inclined to the equator of the third. In the case of the third sphere, while the other planets have their own peculiar poles, those of Venus and Mercury are the same. Callippusof Cyzicus (fl. 380 B.C.). Simplicius says (Simplicius 493.5-8) that he corrected and elaborated Eudoxus's theory with Aristotle's help while on a visit to him at Athens. assumed the same arrangement of the spheres as did Eudoxus (that is, with respect to the order of their intervals), but as regards their number, whereas he assigned to Jupiter and Saturn the same number of spheres as Eudoxus, he considered that two further spheres should be added both for the sun
are we shall now, to give some idea of the subject, quote what some of the mathematicians say, in order that there may be some definite number for the mind to grasp; but for the rest we must partly investigate for ourselves and partly learn from other investigators, and if those who apply themselves to these matters come to some conclusion which clashes with what we have just stated, we must appreciate both views, but follow the more accurate. EudoxusOf Cnidus (circa 408 -355 B.C.). He was a pupil of Plato, and a distinguished mathematician. held that the motion of the sun and moon involves in either case three spheres,For a full discussion of the theories of Eudoxus and Callipus see Dreyer, Planetary Systems 87-114; Heath,Aristarchus of Samos190-224. of which the outermost is that of the fixed stars,Not identical with that of the fixed stars, but having the same motion. the second revolves in the
ird sphere of all the planets has its poles in the circle which bisects the zodiac; and the fourth sphere moves in the circle inclined to the equator of the third. In the case of the third sphere, while the other planets have their own peculiar poles, those of Venus and Mercury are the same. Callippusof Cyzicus (fl. 380 B.C.). Simplicius says (Simplicius 493.5-8) that he corrected and elaborated Eudoxus's theory with Aristotle's help while on a visit to him at Athens. assumed the same arrangement of the spheres as did Eudoxus (that is, with respect to the order of their intervals), but as regards their number, whereas he assigned to Jupiter and Saturn the same number of spheres as Eudoxus, he considered that two further spheres should be added both for the sun and for the moon, if the phenomena are to be accounted for, and one for each of the other planets. But if all the spheres in combination are to account for t
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