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not-true.And if all men are equally right and wrong, an exponent of this view can neither speak nor mean anything, since at the same time he says both "yes" and "no." And if he forms no judgement, but "thinks" and "thinks not" indifferently, what difference will there be between him and the vegetables?Hence it is quite evident that no one, either of those who profess this theory or of any other school, is really in this position.Otherwise, why does a man walk to Megara and not stay at home, when he thinks he ought to make the journey? Why does he not walk early one morning into a well or ravine, if he comes to it, instead of clearly guarding against doing so, thus showing that he does not think that it is equally good and not good to fall in? Obviously then he judges that the one course is better and the other worse.And if this is so, he must judge that one thing is man and another not man,and that one thing is sweet and anoth
raise the question whether magnitudes and colors are really such as they appear at a distance or close at hand, as they appear to the healthy or to the diseased; and whether heavy things are as they appear to the weak or to the strong; and whether truth is as it appears to the waking or to the sleeping.For clearly they do not really believe the latter alternative—at any rate no one, if in the night he thinks that he is at Athens whereas he is really in Africa, starts off to the Odeum.A concert-hall (used also for other purposes) built by Pericles. It lay to the south-east of the Acropolis. And again concerning the future (as indeed Plato saysPlat. Theaet. 171e, 178cff..) the opinion of the doctor and that of the layman are presumably not equally reliable, e.g. as to whether a man will get well or not.And again in the case of the senses themselves, our perception of a foreign object and of an object p
y express surprise if our opponents raise the question whether magnitudes and colors are really such as they appear at a distance or close at hand, as they appear to the healthy or to the diseased; and whether heavy things are as they appear to the weak or to the strong; and whether truth is as it appears to the waking or to the sleeping.For clearly they do not really believe the latter alternative—at any rate no one, if in the night he thinks that he is at Athens whereas he is really in Africa, starts off to the Odeum.A concert-hall (used also for other purposes) built by Pericles. It lay to the south-east of the Acropolis. And again concerning the future (as indeed Plato saysPlat. Theaet. 171e, 178cff..) the opinion of the doctor and that of the layman are presumably not equally reliable, e.g. as to whether a man will get well or not.And again in the case of the senses themselves, our perception of a fo
Aegina City (Greece) (search for this): book 5, section 1015a
ral objects, which is somehow inherent in them, either potentially or actually."Necessary" means: (a) That without which, as a concomitant condition, life is impossible; e.g. respiration and food are necessary for an animal, because it cannot exist without them. (b) The conditions without which good cannot be or come to be, or without which one cannot get rid or keep free of evil—e.g., drinking medicine is necessary to escape from ill-health, and sailing to Aegina is necessary to recover one's money.(c) The compulsory and compulsion; i.e. that which hinders and prevents, in opposition to impulse and purpose. For the compulsory is called necessary, and hence the necessary is disagreeable; as indeed EvenusOf Poros; sophist and poet, contemporary with Socrates. says: "For every necessary thing is by nature grievous."Evenus Fr. 8 (Hiller).And compulsion is a kind of necessity, as Sophocles says: "Compul
Aegina City (Greece) (search for this): book 5, section 1025a
h applies to a subject, but not because it was a particular subject or time or place, will be an accident.Nor is there any definite cause for an accident, but only a chance, i.e. indefinite, cause. It was by accident that X went to Aegina if he arrived there, not because he intended to go there but because he was carried out of his course by a storm, or captured by pirates.The accident has happened or exists, but in virtue not of itself but of something else; for it was the storm which was the cause of his coming to a place for which he was not sailing—i.e. Aegina."Accident" has also another sense,i.e. "property." namely, whatever belongs to each thing in virtue of itself, but is not in its essence; e.g. as having the sum of its angles equal to two right angles belongs to the triangle. Accidents of this kind may be eternal, but none of the former kind can be. There is an account of this elsewhere.The reference is pr
f the former are included under one principle, the rational account.It is evident also that whereas the power of merely producing (or suffering) a given effect is implied in the power of producing that effect well , the contrary is not always true; for that which produces an effect well must also produce it, but that which merely produces a given effect does not necessarily produce it well.There are some, e.g. the Megaric school,Founded by Euclides of Megara, an enthusiastic admirer of Socrates. The Megarics adopted the Eleatic system and developed it along dialectical lines. who say that a thing only has potency when it functions, and that when it is not functioning it has no potency. E.g., they say that a man who is not building cannot build, but only the man who is building, and at the moment when he is building; and similarly in the other cases.It is not difficult to see the absurd consequences
e other spheres, and the sphere next in order, which has its motion in the circle which bisects the zodiac, is common to all the planets); the third sphere of all the planets has its poles in the circle which bisects the zodiac; and the fourth sphere moves in the circle inclined to the equator of the third. In the case of the third sphere, while the other planets have their own peculiar poles, those of Venus and Mercury are the same. Callippusof Cyzicus (fl. 380 B.C.). Simplicius says (Simplicius 493.5-8) that he corrected and elaborated Eudoxus's theory with Aristotle's help while on a visit to him at Athens. assumed the same arrangement of the spheres as did Eudoxus (that is, with respect to the order of their intervals), but as regards their number, whereas he assigned to Jupiter and Saturn the same number of spheres as Eudoxus, he considered that two further spheres should be added both for the sun and for the
all now, to give some idea of the subject, quote what some of the mathematicians say, in order that there may be some definite number for the mind to grasp; but for the rest we must partly investigate for ourselves and partly learn from other investigators, and if those who apply themselves to these matters come to some conclusion which clashes with what we have just stated, we must appreciate both views, but follow the more accurate. EudoxusOf Cnidus (circa 408 -355 B.C.). He was a pupil of Plato, and a distinguished mathematician. held that the motion of the sun and moon involves in either case three spheres,For a full discussion of the theories of Eudoxus and Callipus see Dreyer, Planetary Systems 87-114; Heath,Aristarchus of Samos190-224. of which the outermost is that of the fixed stars,Not identical with that of the fixed stars, but having the same motion. the second revolves in the circle
are we shall now, to give some idea of the subject, quote what some of the mathematicians say, in order that there may be some definite number for the mind to grasp; but for the rest we must partly investigate for ourselves and partly learn from other investigators, and if those who apply themselves to these matters come to some conclusion which clashes with what we have just stated, we must appreciate both views, but follow the more accurate. EudoxusOf Cnidus (circa 408 -355 B.C.). He was a pupil of Plato, and a distinguished mathematician. held that the motion of the sun and moon involves in either case three spheres,For a full discussion of the theories of Eudoxus and Callipus see Dreyer, Planetary Systems 87-114; Heath,Aristarchus of Samos190-224. of which the outermost is that of the fixed stars,Not identical with that of the fixed stars, but having the same motion. the second revolves in the
ird sphere of all the planets has its poles in the circle which bisects the zodiac; and the fourth sphere moves in the circle inclined to the equator of the third. In the case of the third sphere, while the other planets have their own peculiar poles, those of Venus and Mercury are the same. Callippusof Cyzicus (fl. 380 B.C.). Simplicius says (Simplicius 493.5-8) that he corrected and elaborated Eudoxus's theory with Aristotle's help while on a visit to him at Athens. assumed the same arrangement of the spheres as did Eudoxus (that is, with respect to the order of their intervals), but as regards their number, whereas he assigned to Jupiter and Saturn the same number of spheres as Eudoxus, he considered that two further spheres should be added both for the sun and for the moon, if the phenomena are to be accounted for, and one for each of the other planets. But if all the spheres in combination are to account for t
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