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e mind may not be kept in suspense, for that which is undefined leads astray; so then he who puts the beginning, so to say, into the hearer's hand enables him, if he holds fast to it, to follow the story. Hence the following exordia: Sing the wrath, O Muse.Hom. Il 1.1. Tell me of the man, O Muse.Hom. Od. 1.1. Inspire me with another theme, how from the land of Asia a great war crossed into Europe.From Choerilus (sect. 4). Similarly, tragic poets make clear the subject of their drama, if not at the outset,like Euripides, at least somewhere in the prologue, like Sophocles, My father was Polybus.Soph. OT 774. But this can hardly be called the prologue. It is the same in comedy. So then the most essential and special function of the exordium is to make clear what is the end or purpose of the speech; wherefore i
other. For Socrates says truly in his Funeral Oration that “it is easy to praise Athenians in the presence of Athenians, but not in the presence of Lacedaemonians.”See 1.9.30. Deliberative oratory borrows its exordia from forensic, but naturally they are very uncommon in it. For in fact the hearers are acquainted with the subject, so that the case needs no exordium, except for the orator's own sake, or on account of his adversaries, or if the hearers attach too much or too little importance to the question according to his idea. Wherefore he must either excite or remove prejudice, and magnify or minimize the importance of the subject. Such are the reasons for exordia; or else they merely serve the purpose of ornament, since their absence makes the speech appear offhand. For such is the encomium on the Eleans, in which Gorgias, without any preliminary sparring or movements, starts off at once, “Elis, happy city.
hand what it is about, and that the mind may not be kept in suspense, for that which is undefined leads astray; so then he who puts the beginning, so to say, into the hearer's hand enables him, if he holds fast to it, to follow the story. Hence the following exordia: Sing the wrath, O Muse.Hom. Il 1.1. Tell me of the man, O Muse.Hom. Od. 1.1. Inspire me with another theme, how from the land of Asia a great war crossed into Europe.From Choerilus (sect. 4). Similarly, tragic poets make clear the subject of their drama, if not at the outset,like Euripides, at least somewhere in the prologue, like Sophocles, My father was Polybus.Soph. OT 774. But this can hardly be called the prologue. It is the same in comedy. So then the most essential and special function of the exordium is to make clear what is the end or
Greece (Greece) (search for this): book 3, chapter 14
l in the introduction of matter not strictly proper to, or in common with, the subject. The key-note is Helen; but the exordium is an attack on the Eristics, with special allusion to the Cynics and the Megarians. At the same time, even if the speaker wanders from the point, this is more appropriate than that the speech should be monotonous. In epideictic speeches, the sources of the exordia are praise and blame, as Gorgias, in the Olympiacus, says, “Men of Greece, you are worthy to be admired by many,” where he is praising those who instituted the solemn assemblies. Isocrates on the other hand blames them because they rewarded bodily excellences, but instituted no prize for men of wisdom. Exordia may also be derived from advice, for instance, one should honor the good, wherefore the speaker praises Aristides, or such as are neither famous nor worthless, but who, although they are good, remain obscure, as Alexander,