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e great altar of Jupiter (ara Iovis), where solemn sacrifices were offered at the beginning of the year, at the celebration of triumphs, and on some other occasions (Suet. Aug. 94; Zonaras viii. I; Fest. 285). This temple became a repository of works of art of many sorts, the gifts of Roman generals and foreigners, as well as of dedicatory offerings and trophies of victory (see Rosch. ii. 728-730; Jord. i. 2. 16-18), of which the earliest recorded was a golden crown presented by the Latins in 459 (Liv. ii. 22. 6). The number of these became so great that in 179 B.C. it was necessary to remove some of the statues and many of the shields affixed to the columns (Liv. xl. 51. 3). This first temple was burned to the ground on 6th July, 83 B.C. (Cic. Cat. iii. 9; Sail. Cat. 47. 2; Tac. Hist. iii. 72; App. BC i. 83, 86; Obseq. 57; Plut. Sulla 27; Cassiod. ad a. 671), with the statue of Jupiter (Plut. de Iside 71 ; cf. Ov. Fast. i. 201), and the Sibylline books that had been kept in a stone
VETUS (q.v.) cannot be determined. Lightning frequently struck on the Capitol and did much damage, probably to the temple itself (Cic. Cat. iii. 19; de Div. i. 20; ii. 45; Cass. Dio xli. 14; xlii. 26; xlv. 17; xlvii. 10), and Augustus restored it at great expense, probably about 26 B.C., but without placing his own name upon it (Mon. Anc. iv. 9). It is thrice mentioned in the Acta Lud. Saec. (CIL vi. 32323. 9, 29, 70). Further injury by lightning is recorded in 9 B.C. (Cass. Dio Iv. I) and 56 A.D. (Tac. Ann. xiii. 24). In 69 A.D. the second temple, though ungarrisoned and unplundered, was burned when the Capitol was stormed by the Vitellians (Tac. Hist. iii. 71; Suet. Vit. 15; Cass. Diolxiv. 17; Stat. Silv. v. 3. 195-200; Hier. a. Abr. 2089), and rebuilt by Vespasian on its original lines but with still greater height (Tac. Hist. iv. 4, 9, 53; Suet. Vesp. 8; Cass. Dio lxv. 7. I ; Plut. Popl. 15; Aur. Vict. Caes. 9. 7; ep. de Caes. 9. 8; Zon. xi. 17). Coins of the period See BC 1925,
n 459 (Liv. ii. 22. 6). The number of these became so great that in 179 B.C. it was necessary to remove some of the statues and many of the shields affixed to the columns (Liv. xl. 51. 3). This first temple was burned to the ground on 6th July, 83 B.C. (Cic. Cat. iii. 9; Sail. Cat. 47. 2; Tac. Hist. iii. 72; App. BC i. 83, 86; Obseq. 57; Plut. Sulla 27; Cassiod. ad a. 671), with the statue of Jupiter (Plut. de Iside 71 ; cf. Ov. Fast. i. 201), and the Sibylline books that had been kept in a storinthian columns of the Olympieion in Athens to Rome for this temple (Plin. NH xxxvi. 45). They do not seem to have been used, for coins of 43 B.C. Add a coin of the gens Volteia (Babelon, ii. 565 ; BM. Rep. i. 388. I, where it is dated after 83 B.C.). The temple was areostyle, and its pediment was dedicated 'tuscanico more,' probably with statues of gilt bronze (Vitr. iii. 3. 35, quoted on p. 255). See BC 1925, 169-176. It is also represented, with its lofty podium, on one of the Boscoreale
lut. de Iside 71 ; cf. Ov. Fast. i. 201), and the Sibylline books that had been kept in a stone chest (Dionys. iv. 62), but the temple treasure was carried in safety to Praeneste by the younger Marius (Plin. NH xxxiii. 16). The rebuilding was taken in hand by Sulla (Val. Max. ix. 3. 8; Tac. Hist. iii. 72), who is said to have brought the white marble Corinthian columns of the Olympieion in Athens to Rome for this temple (Plin. NH xxxvi. 45). They do not seem to have been used, for coins of 43 B.C. Add a coin of the gens Volteia (Babelon, ii. 565 ; BM. Rep. i. 388. I, where it is dated after 83 B.C.). The temple was areostyle, and its pediment was dedicated 'tuscanico more,' probably with statues of gilt bronze (Vitr. iii. 3. 35, quoted on p. 255). See BC 1925, 169-176. It is also represented, with its lofty podium, on one of the Boscoreale cups (Mon. Piot, v. (1899) pl. xxxvi. 2; Rostowzew, History of the Ancient World, ii. Rome, 186), where an eagle is clearly visible in the pedime
e as hexastyle, with Corinthian columns, and statues of Jupiter, Juno (left), and Minerva (right), in the three central intercolumniations, but they differ in the number and position of the figures surmounting the pediment-quadrigae, eagles, heads of horses, and objects of an uncertain character (Cohen, Vesp. 486-493; Titus 242-245; Dom. 533; for a list of coins representing the temple at different periods, see Arch. Zeit. i 872, 1-8; Jord. i. 2. 88-90). This temple was again burned down in 80 A.D. (Cass. Dio lxvi. 24) and restored by Domitian (Suet. Dom. 5; Plut. Popl. 15; Eutrop. vii. 23; Chron. 146), although the actual work was apparently begun in 80 (Act. Arv. Henzen, cvi. 115-116). The dedication probably took place in 82 (Cohen, Dom. 230; Hier. a. Abr. 2105, wrongly). This structure surpassed the earlier in magnificence. It was hexastyle, of the Corinthian order, and its columns were of white Pentelic marble, a material used in no other Roman building (Plut. Popl. 15). The doo
NH xxviii. 16; xxxv. 157; Fest. 274; Plut. Popl. 13). This was replaced in 296 B.C. by another, probably of bronze (Liv. x. 23. 12). There is no doubt that pediment and roof were decorated with terra cotta figures, among them a statue of Summanus 'in fastigio' (perhaps therefore an acroterion), the head of which was broken off by a thunderbolt in 275 B.C. (Cic. de Div. i. 10; Liv. Epit. xiv.). See BC 1923, 304; 1925, 161-169, 191-200; JRS 1914, 183; Van Buren, Terracotta Revetments, 47. In 193 B.C. the aediles M. Aemilius Lepidus and L. Aemilius Paullus placed gilt shields on the pediment (Liv. xxxv. 10). In 179 B.C. the walls and columns were covered anew with stucco (Liv. xl. 51. 3), and a copy of the dedicatory inscription of L. Aemilius Regillus, from the temple of the LARES PERMARINI (q.v.), was placed over the door (ib. 52). A little later a mosaic pavement was laid in the cella (Plin. NH xxxvi. 185), and in 142 the ceiling was gilded (Plin. NH xxxiii. 57). The temple stood in t
ged to it or to the CAPITOLIUM VETUS (q.v.) cannot be determined. Lightning frequently struck on the Capitol and did much damage, probably to the temple itself (Cic. Cat. iii. 19; de Div. i. 20; ii. 45; Cass. Dio xli. 14; xlii. 26; xlv. 17; xlvii. 10), and Augustus restored it at great expense, probably about 26 B.C., but without placing his own name upon it (Mon. Anc. iv. 9). It is thrice mentioned in the Acta Lud. Saec. (CIL vi. 32323. 9, 29, 70). Further injury by lightning is recorded in 9 B.C. (Cass. Dio Iv. I) and 56 A.D. (Tac. Ann. xiii. 24). In 69 A.D. the second temple, though ungarrisoned and unplundered, was burned when the Capitol was stormed by the Vitellians (Tac. Hist. iii. 71; Suet. Vit. 15; Cass. Diolxiv. 17; Stat. Silv. v. 3. 195-200; Hier. a. Abr. 2089), and rebuilt by Vespasian on its original lines but with still greater height (Tac. Hist. iv. 4, 9, 53; Suet. Vesp. 8; Cass. Dio lxv. 7. I ; Plut. Popl. 15; Aur. Vict. Caes. 9. 7; ep. de Caes. 9. 8; Zon. xi. 17). Coin
22. 6; Suet. Caes. 15), and the new structure was dedicated by him in 69 (Liv. ep. 98; Plut. Popl. 15; cf. Plin. NH vii. 138; xix. 23; Suet. Aug. 94). Catulus' name was inscribed above the entrance (Tac. Hist. iii. 72) and remained there until 69 A.D., so that the vote of the senate to substitute Caesar's name, after the dictator's death (Cass. Dio xliii. 14; cf. xxxvii. 44), was not carried out. This temple was built on the original foundations (Tac. loc. cit.) and plan, except that it was h B.C., but without placing his own name upon it (Mon. Anc. iv. 9). It is thrice mentioned in the Acta Lud. Saec. (CIL vi. 32323. 9, 29, 70). Further injury by lightning is recorded in 9 B.C. (Cass. Dio Iv. I) and 56 A.D. (Tac. Ann. xiii. 24). In 69 A.D. the second temple, though ungarrisoned and unplundered, was burned when the Capitol was stormed by the Vitellians (Tac. Hist. iii. 71; Suet. Vit. 15; Cass. Diolxiv. 17; Stat. Silv. v. 3. 195-200; Hier. a. Abr. 2089), and rebuilt by Vespasian on
x. 17: aurea Capitoli culmina). Its destruction began in the fifth century when Stilicho carried off the gold plates of the doors (Zos. v. 38). The inscription said to have been found on this occasion was simply a graffito, carelessly read, which is restored by Reinach: Niger, Q. Regii ser(vus) (CRA 1914, 562). As Hillsen points out, however, Niger is not a slave's name, nor is Regius a gentilicium. Gaiseric removed half of the gilt tiles That Constans II removed the gilt bronze tiles in 665 A.D. is asserted by many modern authors; but there is nothing said of it in LP lxxviii. (Hilsen, Bilder aus der Geschichte des Kapitols, Rome, 1899, p. 31, n. 7). (Procop. b. Vand. i. 5), but in the sixth century it was still one of the wonders of the world (Cassiod. Var. vii. 6). In 571, however, Narses appears to have removed the statues, or many of them: Chron. Min. i. 336 (571), p. c. lustini Aug. iiii anno. De Neapolim egressus Narsis ingressus Romam et deposuit palatii eius statuam et Cap
od, and on the apex of the pediment was a terra cotta group, Jupiter in a quadriga, by the same Etruscan artist as the statue in the cella (Plin. NH xxviii. 16; xxxv. 157; Fest. 274; Plut. Popl. 13). This was replaced in 296 B.C. by another, probably of bronze (Liv. x. 23. 12). There is no doubt that pediment and roof were decorated with terra cotta figures, among them a statue of Summanus 'in fastigio' (perhaps therefore an acroterion), the head of which was broken off by a thunderbolt in 275 B.C. (Cic. de Div. i. 10; Liv. Epit. xiv.). See BC 1923, 304; 1925, 161-169, 191-200; JRS 1914, 183; Van Buren, Terracotta Revetments, 47. In 193 B.C. the aediles M. Aemilius Lepidus and L. Aemilius Paullus placed gilt shields on the pediment (Liv. xxxv. 10). In 179 B.C. the walls and columns were covered anew with stucco (Liv. xl. 51. 3), and a copy of the dedicatory inscription of L. Aemilius Regillus, from the temple of the LARES PERMARINI (q.v.), was placed over the door (ib. 52). A little l
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