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equally sceptical; but cf. Hilsen in Geogr. Jahrb. xxxiv. (1911), 191, 192. The legend of the LUPERCAL (q.v.) speaks also for the early dating of the foundation of the Palatine settlement; nor can it be proved that the Luperci Collini were earlier than those of the Palatine; cf. Fest. 87: Faviani et Quintiliani appellabantur luperci, a Favio et Quintilio praepositis suis; Fest. 257 (similar); CIL vi. 1933 (the inscription of a Lupercus Quinctialis vetus); Ov. Fast. ii. 377; Liv. v. 46 (B.C. 390):sacrificium erat statum in Quirinali cole genti Fabiae. Richter 32 is wrong in referring to the earliest Palatine settlement oppida condebant Etrusco ritu (Varro LL. v. 143) and Cato ap. Serv. ad Aen. v. 755: conditores enim civitatis taurum in dextram, vaccam intrinsecus iungebant et ita sulco ducto loca murorum designebant, for it was a Latin community, and no Etruscans had as yet reached Latium (REi.A. 1013; cf.Klio 1905,85; Korte in RE vi.743). ROMAQUADRATA is also recent in its extended
the time of Constantine a considerable part of the hill was occupied by streets and private buildings (the Notitia gives 20 vici, 89 domus, 2642 (or 2742) insulae) ; and the removal of the imperial residence to Byzantium meant the beginning of the end. Constantius, it is true, was 'in Palatium receptus ' when he visited Rome in 356 A.D. (Amm. Marcell. xvi. 10. 13). We know very little about the FORUM PALATINUM (q.v.) which was given to the Roman people by Valentinian I and his colleagues in 374 A.D. The emperors of the fifth century also resided on the Palatine when in Rome-Honorius (Claudian, Sext. Cons. Hon. 35), Valentinian III (Marccll. com. ad a. 434 in Chron. Min. ii. 79, Aetius (ibid. i. 303; ii. 27, 86, 157), Livius Severus (ibid. ii. 158), as well as Odoacer and Theodoric; the latter restored the Palatine, as well as the walls of the city, with funds from the arca vinaria (ibid. i. 324), and Cassiodorus, Var. vii. 5. 5, enumerates the workmen employed; while several brick-stam
ris of various ages (and therefore tampered with in ancient times); and below it the native rock has been exposed, and pole sockets, possibly for huts (and curved cuttings, attributable to the same purpose), have been found in it. It was asserted that remains of archaic tombs were discovered, but this interpretation of the results is now generally rejected. The tufa walls mentioned above have been interpreted as being retaining walls for raising the level of the whole area after the fire of 111 B.C., which destroyed the temple of the Magna Mater, made of blocks taken from the fourth century fortifications on each side of the Scalae Caci (TF 102-107), but this is by no means certain, and some of them may themselves be part of these fortifications. The excavations were suspended at this point in 1907 and have not been carried further down the hill. But it is noticeable that this group of remains was spared by later constructions. Tiberius, Domitian and Hadrian all preferred to build enor
stable which Carinus decorated with a fresco of a great venatio (Hist. Aug. Carin. 19. 1), nor the thermae which Maxentius erected (Chron. 148). It is clear that in the time of Constantine a considerable part of the hill was occupied by streets and private buildings (the Notitia gives 20 vici, 89 domus, 2642 (or 2742) insulae) ; and the removal of the imperial residence to Byzantium meant the beginning of the end. Constantius, it is true, was 'in Palatium receptus ' when he visited Rome in 356 A.D. (Amm. Marcell. xvi. 10. 13). We know very little about the FORUM PALATINUM (q.v.) which was given to the Roman people by Valentinian I and his colleagues in 374 A.D. The emperors of the fifth century also resided on the Palatine when in Rome-Honorius (Claudian, Sext. Cons. Hon. 35), Valentinian III (Marccll. com. ad a. 434 in Chron. Min. ii. 79, Aetius (ibid. i. 303; ii. 27, 86, 157), Livius Severus (ibid. ii. 158), as well as Odoacer and Theodoric; the latter restored the Palatine, as well
f the private houses, which, as the Palatine changed its character and began to come into favour, owing to its position, as a place of residence for the aristocracy, sprang up all over the hill. The oldest of which we have any record is that of VITRUVIUS VACCUS (q.v.) in 330 B.C. Later we hear of that of Cn. Octavius, consul in 165 B.C., which was bought by M. SCAURUS for the enlargement of his own house (q.v.); and not far off was that of Crassus. The house of M. Fulvius Flaccus, consul in 125 B.C., on the site of which Q. Lutatius Catulus built a portico, and a house for himself close to it, must have lain near the north end of the hill; as also must that of M. Livius Drusus, as well as that of Cicero. Other important republican houses, such as those of Q. Cicero, Milo, P. Sulla and Licinius Calvus, were also situated in this part of the Palatine; but the site of that of Mark Antony cannot be fixed. Nor is it possible to identify with certainty any of the houses mentioned above with
attributed to the sixth century (Wilpert, Mos. und Mal. 1074; cf. HCh 489). For S. Maria Antiqua, see DOMUS TIBERIANA; and for the churches on the south (S. Lucia and S. Maria in Pallara), see SEPTIZONIUM, DOMUS AUGUSTIANA (p. 165). For S. Cesareo, see id. (p. 164). The centre of the hill must have been rendered inaccessible by earthquakes, notably by that of the time of Leo IV; and we have practically no mention of it in the Anonymus Einsiedlensis nor in the Mirabilia. At the beginning of the sixteenth century, the Palatine, still called by its mediaeval name of Palazzo Maggiore, was covered with gardens and vineyards. Between 1540 and 1550 the whole of the north half of the hill was bought by Cardinal Alessandro Farnese and converted into a garden. Excavations were made in the state apartments of the DOMUS AUGUSTIANA (q.v.) in the eighteenth century; but the site of the DOMUS TIBERIANA (q.v.) remained untouched until the excavations of Rosa for Napoleon III (which cannot have been v
strength of the hill; and that the remains of defensive walls of the sixth century B.C., which are to be found at the north-west corner (there are a few blocks higher up also) of the hill, belong either to a separate enceinte contemporary with the Servian wall of the whole city, or to this wall itself (see MURUS SERVII TULLII) ; while those of the fourth century- generally known as the wall of Romulus-on the west and south sides of the hill, may belong to a separate fort, erected perhaps in 378 B.C., further remains of which may be seen near the top of the Scalae Caci (TF 91-102). Whatever may be our view as to the non-inclusion of the Aventine, the fragments of walling on the west side and high up on the south (if these last are correctly explained) must belong to a separate enceinte, even if those low down on the south did not. Cf. Ann. d. Inst. 1871, 44 (the fourth and fifth pieces are no longer visible: for the fifth cf. Visconti e Lanciani, Guida del Palatino, plan No. 26, and see
nd MAGNA MATER (q.v.), and only with regard to the last has any certainty been attained. The road system of the Palatine was fundamentally changed by the buildings of the imperial period; these also blotted out the remains of the private houses, which, as the Palatine changed its character and began to come into favour, owing to its position, as a place of residence for the aristocracy, sprang up all over the hill. The oldest of which we have any record is that of VITRUVIUS VACCUS (q.v.) in 330 B.C. Later we hear of that of Cn. Octavius, consul in 165 B.C., which was bought by M. SCAURUS for the enlargement of his own house (q.v.); and not far off was that of Crassus. The house of M. Fulvius Flaccus, consul in 125 B.C., on the site of which Q. Lutatius Catulus built a portico, and a house for himself close to it, must have lain near the north end of the hill; as also must that of M. Livius Drusus, as well as that of Cicero. Other important republican houses, such as those of Q. Cicero,
pe above, the great supporting wall of the platform on which S. Sebastiano stands was strengthened by a mediaeval fortification wall of uncertain date, which was, if not built, at least used, by the Frangipani, who occupied the whole Velia and may have built the tower (ibid. 1909, 527-539; HJ 15-17; ZA 167, 168). By this time the lower slopes of the hill had already been occupied by various churches. S. Anastasia, at the western angle near the Lupercal, probably goes back to the middle of the fourth century. It was erected in imitation of the Holy Place in Bethlehem, and was decorated with paintings by Damasus (Inscr. Chr. ii. i. p. 150) and was the first of the titular churches, ranking only after the Lateran and S. Maria Maggiore (Mel. 1887, 387-413; Grisar, Anal. Rom. i. 595 sqq.; HCh 172-173). Under the church are important remains of six different periods from republican opus quadratum down to repairs of the time of Theodoric (HJ 134; ZA 269-274). They have nothing to do with t
s any certainty been attained. The road system of the Palatine was fundamentally changed by the buildings of the imperial period; these also blotted out the remains of the private houses, which, as the Palatine changed its character and began to come into favour, owing to its position, as a place of residence for the aristocracy, sprang up all over the hill. The oldest of which we have any record is that of VITRUVIUS VACCUS (q.v.) in 330 B.C. Later we hear of that of Cn. Octavius, consul in 165 B.C., which was bought by M. SCAURUS for the enlargement of his own house (q.v.); and not far off was that of Crassus. The house of M. Fulvius Flaccus, consul in 125 B.C., on the site of which Q. Lutatius Catulus built a portico, and a house for himself close to it, must have lain near the north end of the hill; as also must that of M. Livius Drusus, as well as that of Cicero. Other important republican houses, such as those of Q. Cicero, Milo, P. Sulla and Licinius Calvus, were also situated in
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