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Browsing named entities in a specific section of Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome. Search the whole document.

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ourses of bricks gradually inclined inwards. Pumice stone is used in the core for the sake of increased lightness. The ancient bronze doors are still preserved, though they were repaired in the sixteenth century. The pronaos is rectangular, 34 metres wide and 13.60 deep, and has three rows of Corinthian columns, eight of grey granite in the front row and four of red granite in each of the second and third. Of those which were missing at the east end (which cannot possibly have been removed in 1545 (DAP 2. xv. 373, 374), as they were already absent earlier (compare Heemskerck i. 10; ii. 21; Giovannoli, Roma Antica (1615), ii. 11), the corner column was replaced by Urban VIII with a column of red granite, and the other two by Alexander VII, with grey columns from the thermae Alexandrinae. The corner column only lacked the capital, and why it was removed by Urban VIII is not clear. The capital bears his badge (the Barberini bee) just as the other two capitals bear the Chigi star of Alexan
(Hist. Aug. Hadr. 19) carried out after 126 (AJA 1912, 421) was in fact an entirely new construction, for even the foundations of the existing building date from that time. The inscription (see above) was probably placed by Hadrian in accordance with his well-known principle in such cases. The restoration ascribed to Antoninus Pius (Hist. Aug. Pius 8:instauratum ... templum Agrippae) may refer only to the completion of Hadrian's building. Finally, a restoration by Severus and Caracalla in 202 A.D. is recorded in the lower inscription on the architrave (CIL vi. 896). What it amounted to is quite uncertain, for no traces of their work can be recognised with any certainty (JRS 1925, 125). In January, 59 A.D., the Arval Brethren met in the Pantheon (CIL vi. 2041); Hadrian held court in his restored edifice (Cass. Dio lxix. 7. I); Ammianus (xvi. 10. 14: Pantheum velut regionem teretem speciosa celsitudine fornicatam) speaks of it as one of the wonders of Rome; and it is mentioned in Reg.
PANTHEON a temple which, with the thermae, Stagnum and Euripus, made up the remarkable group of buildings which Agrippa erected in the campus Martius. According to the inscription on the frieze of the pronaos (CIL vi. 896: M. Agrippa L. f. cos. tertium. Fecit The bronze letters are modern: see CIL vi. p. 3073, No. 31196. ) the temple was built in 27 B.C., but Cassius Dio states that it was finished in 25 (liii. 27:to/ te *pa/nqeion w)nomasme/non e)cete/lese: prosagoreu/etai de\ ou(/tw ta/xa me\n o(/ti pollw=n qew=n ei)ko/nas e)n toi=s a)ga/lmasi, tw=| te tou= )/*arews kai\ tw=| th=s )*afrodi/ths, e)/laben, w(s de\ e)gw\ nomi/zw, o(/ti qoloeide\s o)\n tw=| ou)ranw=| prose/oiken, h)boulh/qn me\n ou)=n o( )*agri/ppas kai\ to\n *au)/gouston e)ntau=qa I(dru=sai, th/n te tou= e)/rgou e)pi/klhsiv au)tw=| dou=nai). This passage is not altogether clear (Gilb. iii. 116), but it seems probable that the temple was built for the glorification of the gens Iulia, and that it was dedicated in p
o the weight of the later rotunda, is doubtful. but a marble pavement of an intermediate period (perhaps that of Domitian) was also found actually above this earlier structure, but below the marble pavement of the pronaos. The restoration of Severus and Caracalla has been already mentioned; but after it, except for the account by Ammianus Marcellinus, already cited, of Constantius' visit to it, we hear nothing There is a mention of it in Cod. Theod. xiiii. 3. 10, lecta in Pantheo non. Nov. (368 or 370 A.D.). Cf. BC 1926, 64, 65. of its history until in 609 Boniface IV dedicated the building as the church of S. Maria ad Martyres (LP lxviii. 2). Constantius II removed the bronze tiles in 663 (ib. lxxviii. 3; cf. Paul Diac. Hist. Langob. 5. II; AJA 1899, 40); and it was only Gregory III who placed a lead roof over it (ib. xcii. 12). That the pine-cone of the Vatican came from the Pantheon is a mediaeval fable; it was a fountain perhaps connected with the SERAPEUM (q.v.). The descript
f himself and Augustus (Cass. Dio loc. cit.), and on the gable were sculptured ornaments of note (Plin. NH xxxvi. 38). The decoration was done by Diogenes of Athens, and Pliny goes on to say (loc. cit.) in columnis templi eius Caryatides probantur inter pauca operum (cf. xxxiv. 13: Syracusana (i.e. aenea) sunt in Pantheo capita columnarum a M. Agrippa posita). The position of these Caryatides has been much discussed, but is quite uncertain (Alt. 62-63). The Pantheon of Agrippa was burned in 80 A.D. (Cass. Dio Ixvi. 24. 2) and restored by Domitian (Chron. 146; Hier. a. Abr. 2105; cf. perhaps 2101). Again, in the reign of Trajan, it was struck by lightning and burned (Oros. vii. 12; Hier. a. Abr. 2127). The restoration by Hadrian (Hist. Aug. Hadr. 19) carried out after 126 (AJA 1912, 421) was in fact an entirely new construction, for even the foundations of the existing building date from that time. The inscription (see above) was probably placed by Hadrian in accordance with his well-k
placed by Hadrian in accordance with his well-known principle in such cases. The restoration ascribed to Antoninus Pius (Hist. Aug. Pius 8:instauratum ... templum Agrippae) may refer only to the completion of Hadrian's building. Finally, a restoration by Severus and Caracalla in 202 A.D. is recorded in the lower inscription on the architrave (CIL vi. 896). What it amounted to is quite uncertain, for no traces of their work can be recognised with any certainty (JRS 1925, 125). In January, 59 A.D., the Arval Brethren met in the Pantheon (CIL vi. 2041); Hadrian held court in his restored edifice (Cass. Dio lxix. 7. I); Ammianus (xvi. 10. 14: Pantheum velut regionem teretem speciosa celsitudine fornicatam) speaks of it as one of the wonders of Rome; and it is mentioned in Reg. (Not. Reg. IX). For a library situated in or near the Pantheon, see THERMAE AGRIPPAE (p. 519); THERMAE NERONIANAE. The building faces due north; it consists of a huge rotunda preceded by a pronaos. The former is
ght of the later rotunda, is doubtful. but a marble pavement of an intermediate period (perhaps that of Domitian) was also found actually above this earlier structure, but below the marble pavement of the pronaos. The restoration of Severus and Caracalla has been already mentioned; but after it, except for the account by Ammianus Marcellinus, already cited, of Constantius' visit to it, we hear nothing There is a mention of it in Cod. Theod. xiiii. 3. 10, lecta in Pantheo non. Nov. (368 or 370 A.D.). Cf. BC 1926, 64, 65. of its history until in 609 Boniface IV dedicated the building as the church of S. Maria ad Martyres (LP lxviii. 2). Constantius II removed the bronze tiles in 663 (ib. lxxviii. 3; cf. Paul Diac. Hist. Langob. 5. II; AJA 1899, 40); and it was only Gregory III who placed a lead roof over it (ib. xcii. 12). That the pine-cone of the Vatican came from the Pantheon is a mediaeval fable; it was a fountain perhaps connected with the SERAPEUM (q.v.). The description of it
1100 AD - 1199 AD (search for this): entry pantheon
istory until in 609 Boniface IV dedicated the building as the church of S. Maria ad Martyres (LP lxviii. 2). Constantius II removed the bronze tiles in 663 (ib. lxxviii. 3; cf. Paul Diac. Hist. Langob. 5. II; AJA 1899, 40); and it was only Gregory III who placed a lead roof over it (ib. xcii. 12). That the pine-cone of the Vatican came from the Pantheon is a mediaeval fable; it was a fountain perhaps connected with the SERAPEUM (q.v.). The description of it by Magister Gregorius in the twelfth century (JRS 1919, 36-37, 53) is interesting, especially for the mention of the sarcophagi, baths and figures which stood in front of the portico (cf. DuP 131 for further information as to its history in the Renaissance, during which it was a continual subject of study for artists and architects). A porphyry urn (from the thermae of Agrippa), added by Leo X, now serves as the sarcophagus of Clement XII in the Lateran. For its mediaeval decoration, see BCr 1912, 25. Martin V repaired the lead ro
1500 AD - 1599 AD (search for this): entry pantheon
, with a complicated system of relieving arches, corresponding to the chambers in the drum, which extend as far as the second row of coffers of the dome; the method of construction of the upper portion is somewhat uncertain (the existence of ribs cannot be proved), but is probably of horizontal courses of bricks gradually inclined inwards. Pumice stone is used in the core for the sake of increased lightness. The ancient bronze doors are still preserved, though they were repaired in the sixteenth century. The pronaos is rectangular, 34 metres wide and 13.60 deep, and has three rows of Corinthian columns, eight of grey granite in the front row and four of red granite in each of the second and third. Of those which were missing at the east end (which cannot possibly have been removed in 1545 (DAP 2. xv. 373, 374), as they were already absent earlier (compare Heemskerck i. 10; ii. 21; Giovannoli, Roma Antica (1615), ii. 11), the corner column was replaced by Urban VIII with a column of re