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. 8.5-9.) The accounts of the performances of these engines are evidently exaggerated; and the story of the burning of the Roman ships by the reflected rays of the sun, though very current in later times, is probably a fiction, since neither Polybius, Livy, nor Plutarch gives the least hint of it. The earliest writers who speak of it are Galen (De Temper. 3.2) and his contemporary Lucian (Hippias, 100.2), who (in the second century) merely allude to it as a thing well known. Zonaras (about A. D. 1100) mentions it in relating the use of a similar apparatus, contrived by a certain Proclus, when Byzantium was besieged in the reign of Anastasius ; and gives Dion as his authority, without referring to the particular passage. The extant works of Dion contain no allusion to it. Tzetzes (about 1150) gives an account of the principal inventions of Archimedes (Chil. 2.103-156), and amongst them of this burning machine, which, he says, set the Roman ships on fire when they came within a bow-shot
Archime'des (*)Arximh/dhs), of Syracuse, the most famous of ancient mathematicians, was born B. C. 287, if the statement of Tzetzes, which makes him 75 years old at his death, be correct. Of his family little is known. Plutarch calls him a relation of king Hiero; but Cicero (Tusc. Disp. 5.23), contrasting him apparently not with Dionysius (as Torelli suggests in order to avoid the contradiction), but with Plato and Archytas, says, " humilem homunculum a pulvere et radio excitabo." At any rate, his actual condition in life does not seem to have been elevated (Silius Ital. 14.343), though he was certainly a friend, if not a kinsman, of Hiero. A modern tradition makes him an ancestor of the Syracusan virgin martyr St. Lucy. (Rivaltus, in vit. Archim. Mazzuchelli, p. 6.) In the early part of his life he travelled into Egypt, where he is said, on the authority of Proclus, to have studied under Conon the Samian, a mathematician and astronomer (mentioned by Virg. Eel. 3.40), who lived und
ies immersed in water; and particularly of segments of spheres and parabolic conoids. They are extant only in the Latin version of Commandine, with the exception of a fragment *Peri\ tw=n *(/Udati e)fistame/nwn in Ang. Mai's Collection, vol. i. p. 427. Lemmata The treatise entitled Lemmata is a collection of 15 propositions in plane geometry. It is derived from an Arabic MS. and its genuineness has been doubted. (See Torelli's preface.) Eutocius' Commentary Eutocius of Ascalon, about A. D. 600, wrote a commentary on the Treatises on the Sphere and Cylinder, on the Dimension of the Circle, and on Centres of Gravity. Editions All the works above mentioned, together with Eutocius' Commentary, were found on the taking of Constantinople, and brought first into Italy and then into Germany. They were printed at Basle in 1544, in Greek and Latin, by Hervagius. Of the subsequent editions by far the best is that of Torelli, " Archim. quae supers. omnia, cum Eutocii Ascalonitae commenta
is death vary in some particulars, but mostly agree in describing him as intent upon a mathematical problem at the time. He was deeply regretted by Marcellus, who directed his burial, and befriended his surviving relations. (Liv. 25.31; Valer. Max. 8.7.7; Plut. Marc. 19; Cic. de fin. 5.19.) Upon his tomb was placed the figure of a sphere inscribed in a cylinder, in accordance with his known wish, and in commemoration of the discovery which he most valued. When Cicero was quaestor in Sicily (B. C. 75) he found this tomb near one of the gates of the city, almost hid amongst briars, and forgotten by the Syracusans. (Tusc. Disp. 5.23.) Of the general character of Archimedes we have no direct account. But his apparently disinterested devotion to his friend and admirer Hiero, in whose service he was ever ready to exercise his ingenuity upon objects which his own taste would not have led him to choose (for there is doubtless some truth in what Plutarch says on this point) ; the affectionate