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olio. The learned editor, Montfaucon, was at first assisted in preparing it by James Loppinus; but his coadjutor dying when no more than half of the first volume was finished, the honour of completing the edition devolved upon Montfaucon. Many of the opuscula of Athanasius were printed, for the first time, in the second volume of Montfaucon's " Collectio Nova Patrum et Scriptorum Graecorum," Paris, A. D. 1706. The most complete edition of the works of Athanasius is that published at Padua, A. D. 1777, in four volumes, folio. The first three volumes contain all that is comprised in the valuable Benedictine edition of 1698; the last includes the supplementary collections of Montfaucon, Wolf, Maffei, and Antonelli. Translations The following list includes the principal English translations from the works of Athanasius :--" St. Athanasius's Four Orations against the Arians ; and his Oration against the Gentiles. Translated from the original Greek by Mr. Sam. Parker." Oxford, 1713. Athan
Athana'sius or St. Athana'sius (*)Aqana/sios), ST., archbishop of Alexandria, was born in that city, a few years before the close of the third century. The date of his birth cannot be ascertained with exactness ; but it is assigned by Montfaucon, on grounds sufficiently probable, to A. D. 296. No particulars are recorded of the lineage or the parents of Athanasius. The dawn of his character and genius seems to have given fair promise of his subsequent eminence; for Alexander, then primate of Egypt, brought him up in his own family, and superintended his education with the view of dedicating him to the Christian ministry. We have no account of the studies pursued by Athanasius in his youth, except the vague statement of Gregory Nazianzen, that he devoted comparatively little attention to general literature, but acquired an extraordinary knowledge of the Scriptures. His early proficiency in Biblical knowledge is credible enough; but though he was much inferior in general learning to s
th. Julian was probably aware that the superstition he was bent upon re-establishing had no enemy more formidable than the thrice-exiled archbishop: he therefore banished him not only from Alexandria, but from Egypt itself, threatening the prefect of that country with a heavy fine if the sentence were not carried into execution. Theodoret, indeed, affirms, that Julian gave secret orders for inflicting the last penalties of the law upon the hated prelate. He escaped, however, to the desert (A. D. 362), having predicted that this calamity would be but of brief duration; and after a few months' concealment in the monasteries, he returned to Alexandria on receiving intelligence of the death of Julian. By Jovian, who succeeded to the throne of the empire, Athanasius was held in high esteem. When, therefore, his inveterate enemies endeavoured to persuade the emperor to depose him, they were repeatedly repulsed, and that with no little asperity. The speedy demise of Jovian again deprived A
of whom he eventually became the biographer; and this early acquaintance laid the foundation of a friendship which was interrupted only by the death of the aged recluse. [ANTONIUS, ST.] At what age Athanasius was ordained a deacon is nowhere stated; but he was young both in years and in office when he vigorously supported Alexander in maintaining the orthodox faith against the earliest assaults of the Arians. He was still only a deacon when appointed a member of the famous council of Nice (A. D. 325), in which he distinguished himself as an able opponent of the Arian doctrine, and assisted in drawing up the creed that takes its name from that assembly. In the following year Alexander died; and Athanasius, whom he had strongly recommended as his successor, was raised to the vacant see of Alexandria, the voice of the people as well as the suffrages of the ecclesiastics being decisively in his favour. The manner in which he discharged the duties of his new office was highly exemplary;
tter from Constans to his brother, in which the cause of the orthodox clergy was strongly recommended. At Antioch an infamous plot was laid to blast the reputation of the delegates. Its detection seems to have wrought powerfully upon the mind of Constantius, who had previously supported the Arians; for he recalled those of the orthodox whom he had banished, and sent letters to Alexandria forbidding any further molestation to be offered to the friends of Athanasius. In the following year (A. D. 349), Gregory was murdered at Alexandria; but of the occasion and manner of his death no particulars have reached us. It prepared the way for the return of Athanasius. He was urged to this by Constantius himself, whom he visited on his way to Alexandria, and on whom he made, for the time, a very favourable impression. He was once more received at Alexandria with overflowing signs of gladness and affection. Restored to his see, he immediately proceeded against the Arians with great vigour, and
ession. He was once more received at Alexandria with overflowing signs of gladness and affection. Restored to his see, he immediately proceeded against the Arians with great vigour, and they, on their side, renewed against him the charges which had been so often disproved. Constans, the friend of Athanasius, was now dead; and though Constantius, at this juncture, professed great friendliness for the primate, he soon attached himself once more to the Arian party. In a council held at Arles (A. D. 353), and another at Milan (A. D. 355), they succeeded by great exertions in procuring the condemnation of Athanasius. On the latter occasion, the whole weight of the imperial authority was thrown into the scale against him; and those of the bishops who resolutely vindicated his cause were punished with exile. Among these (though his banishment occurred some time after the synod of Milan had closed) was Liberius, bishop of Rome. Persecution was widely directed against those who sided with Ath
, and declared that his motive in banishing the primate was to remove him from the machinations of his enemies. * Gibbon ascribes the sentence to reasons of policy. "The emperor was satisfied that the peace of Egypt would be secured by the absence of a popular leader; but he refused to fill the vacancy of the archiepiscopal throne; and the sentence, which, after long hesitation, he pronounced, was that of a jealous ostracism, rather than of an ignominious exile." Athanasius went to Treves (A. D. 336), where he was not only received with kindness by Maximinus, the bishop of that city, but loaded with favours by Constantine the Younger. The Alexandrians petitioned the emperor to restore their spiritual father, and Antony the hermit joined in the request; but the appeal was unsuccessful. In the year 337, Constantine died. In the following year, Athanasius was replaced in his see by Constantine II. He was received by the clergy and the people with the liveliest demonstrations of joy. Bu
rianos ; Epistola de Nicaenis Decretis; Epistola ad Episcopos Aegypti et Libyae ; Apologia ad Imperatorem Constantium ; Apologia de Fuga sua ; Historia Arianorum ad Monachos ; Orationes quatuor contra Arianos ; Epistolae quatuor ad Serapionem ; Epistola de Synodis Arimini et Seleuciae ; Vita Antonii ; Liber de Incarnatione Dei Verbi et c. Arianos. Editions The earliest edition of the collected works of Athanasius appeared, in two volumes, folio, at Heidelberg, ex officina Commeliniana, A. D. 1600. The Greek text was accompanied by the Latin version of Peter Nanning (Nannius); and in the following year an appendix issued from the same press, containing notes, various readings, indices, &c., by Peter Felckmann. Those who purchase this edition should take care that their copies contain the appendix. The Paris edition of 1627, and the Leipzig of 1686 (which professes, but untruly, to have been published at Cologne), are not held in much estimation; and the latter is very inaccurately p