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d to his palace beyond the Danube, and (if we except the doubtful story in Jornandes, de Reb. Get. 43, of his invasion of the Alani and repulse by Thorismund) there remained till on the night of his marriage with a beautiful girl, variously named Hilda, Ildico, Mycolth, the last of his innumerable wives, possibly by her hand (Marcellin. Chronicon), but probably by the bursting of a blood-vessel, he suddenly expired, and was buried according to the ancient and savage customs of his nation. (A. D. 454.) The instantaneous fall of his empire is well symbolized in the story that, on that same night, the emperor Marcian at Constantinople dreamed that he saw the bow of Attila broken asunder. (Jornandes, Reb. Get. 49.) In person Attila was, like the Mongolian race in general, a short thickset man, of stately gait, with a large head, dark complexion, flat nose, thin beard, and bald with the exception of a few white hairs, his eyes small, but of great brilliancy and quickness. (Jornandes, Reb
nd which were rendered remarkable by the resistance of Azimus (Priscus, cc. 35, 36), by the embassy from Constantinople to the royal village beyond the Danube, and the discovery of the treacherous design of the emperor against his life. (Ib. 37-72.) They were ended by a treaty which ceded to Attila a large territory south of the Danube, an annual tribute, and the claims which he made for the surrender of the deserters from his army. (Ib. 34-37.) The invasion of the Western empire (A. D. 450-453) was grounded on various pretexts, of which the chief were the refusal of the Eastern emperor, Marcian, the successor of Theodosius II., to pay the above-mentioned tribute (Priscus, 39, 72), and the rejection by the Western emperor Valentinian III. of his proposals of marriage to his sister Honoria. (Jornandes, Regn. Succ. 97, Reb. Get. 42.) Its particular direction was determined by his alliance with the Vandals and Franks, whose dominion in Spain and Gaul was threatened by Aetius and Theodo
ind that he, like Alaric, could not survive an attack upon the city, but ostensibly and chiefly by his celebrated interview with Pope Leo the Great and the senator Avienus at Peschiera or Governolo on the banks of the Mincius. (Jornandes, Reb. Get. 42.) The story of the apparition of St. Peter and St. Paul rests on the authority of an ancient MS. record of it in the Roman church, and on Paulus Diaconus, who wrote in the eighth century, and who mentions only St. Peter. (Baronius, Ann. Eccl. A. D. 452.) He accordingly returned to his palace beyond the Danube, and (if we except the doubtful story in Jornandes, de Reb. Get. 43, of his invasion of the Alani and repulse by Thorismund) there remained till on the night of his marriage with a beautiful girl, variously named Hilda, Ildico, Mycolth, the last of his innumerable wives, possibly by her hand (Marcellin. Chronicon), but probably by the bursting of a blood-vessel, he suddenly expired, and was buried according to the ancient and sava
and in which there fell 252,000 (Jornandes, Reb. Get. 42) or 300,000 men. (Idatius and Isidore.) He retired by way of Troyes, Cologne, and Thuringia, to one of his cities on the Danube, and having there recruited his forces, crossed the Alps in A. D. 451, laid siege to Aquileia, then the second city in Italy, and at length took and utterly destroyed it. After ravaging the whole of Lombardy, he was then preparing to march upon Rome, when he was suddenly diverted from his purpose, partly perhaps the great mound which he raised for the defence of his army during the siege of Aquileia, and which still remains at Udine (Herbert, Attila, p. 489); and indirectly in the foundation of Venice by the Italian nobles who fled from his ravages in A. D. 451. The partial descent of the Hungarians from the remnant of his army, though maintained strenuously by Hungarian historians, has been generally doubted by later writers, as resting on insufficient evidence. The chief historical authority for h
odern times who has united under his rule the German and Sclavonic nations. He was the son of Mundzuk, descended from the ancient kings of the Huns, and with his brother Bleda, in German Blödel (who died, according to Jornandes, by his hand, in A. D. 445), attained in A. D. 434 to the sovereignty of all the northern tribes between the frontier of Gaul and the frontier of China (see Desguignes, Hist. des Huns, vol. ii. pp. 295-301), and to the command of an army of at least 500,000 barbarians. ( "virga Dei," and in an inscription at Aquileia, written a short time before the siege in 451 (see Herbert, Attila, p. 486), in which they are described as "imminentia peccatorum flagella." His career divides itself into two parts. The first (A. D. 445-450) consists of the ravage of the Eastern empire between the Euxine and the Adriatic and the negotiations with Theodosius II., which followed upon it, and which were rendered remarkable by the resistance of Azimus (Priscus, cc. 35, 36), by the
Dei," and in an inscription at Aquileia, written a short time before the siege in 451 (see Herbert, Attila, p. 486), in which they are described as "imminentia peccatorum flagella." His career divides itself into two parts. The first (A. D. 445-450) consists of the ravage of the Eastern empire between the Euxine and the Adriatic and the negotiations with Theodosius II., which followed upon it, and which were rendered remarkable by the resistance of Azimus (Priscus, cc. 35, 36), by the embass7-72.) They were ended by a treaty which ceded to Attila a large territory south of the Danube, an annual tribute, and the claims which he made for the surrender of the deserters from his army. (Ib. 34-37.) The invasion of the Western empire (A. D. 450-453) was grounded on various pretexts, of which the chief were the refusal of the Eastern emperor, Marcian, the successor of Theodosius II., to pay the above-mentioned tribute (Priscus, 39, 72), and the rejection by the Western emperor Valentin
ns, remarkable as being the most formidable of the invaders of the Roman empire, and (except Radagaisus) the only one of them who was not only a barbarian, but a savage and a heathen, and as the only conqueror of ancient or modern times who has united under his rule the German and Sclavonic nations. He was the son of Mundzuk, descended from the ancient kings of the Huns, and with his brother Bleda, in German Blödel (who died, according to Jornandes, by his hand, in A. D. 445), attained in A. D. 434 to the sovereignty of all the northern tribes between the frontier of Gaul and the frontier of China (see Desguignes, Hist. des Huns, vol. ii. pp. 295-301), and to the command of an army of at least 500,000 barbarians. (Jornandes, Reb. Get. cc. 35, 37, 49.) In this position, partly from the real terror which it inspired, partly from his own endeavours to invest himself in the eyes of Christendom with the dreadful character of the predicted Antichrist (see Herbert, Attila, p. 360), and in t