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acked Samos under the pretext of restoring SYLOSON, but his further designs in that quarter were interrupted by the revolt of the Babylonians, who had profited by the period of confusion which followed the death of Cambyses to make every preparation for rebellion. After a siege of twenty months, Babylon was taken by a stratagem of ZOPYRUS, and was severely punished for its revolt, probably about B. C. 516. The reduction of Babylon was soon followed by Dareius's invasion of Scythia (about B. C. 513, or 508 according to Wesseling and Clinton). The cause of this expedition is very obscure. Herodotus (4.1, 83) attributes it to the desire of Dareius to take vengeance on the Scythians for their invasion of Media in the time of CYAXARES,--far too remote a cause, though very probably used as a pretext. Ctesias says, that on the occasion of a predatory incursion into Scythia by the satrap of Cappadocia, the Scythian king had sent a letter of defiance to Dareius, and that this provoked him to
eam of Cyrus, overshadowed Asia with one wing, now began to spread the other over Europe. He attacked Samos under the pretext of restoring SYLOSON, but his further designs in that quarter were interrupted by the revolt of the Babylonians, who had profited by the period of confusion which followed the death of Cambyses to make every preparation for rebellion. After a siege of twenty months, Babylon was taken by a stratagem of ZOPYRUS, and was severely punished for its revolt, probably about B. C. 516. The reduction of Babylon was soon followed by Dareius's invasion of Scythia (about B. C. 513, or 508 according to Wesseling and Clinton). The cause of this expedition is very obscure. Herodotus (4.1, 83) attributes it to the desire of Dareius to take vengeance on the Scythians for their invasion of Media in the time of CYAXARES,--far too remote a cause, though very probably used as a pretext. Ctesias says, that on the occasion of a predatory incursion into Scythia by the satrap of Cappa
mpared with the army which marched to the invasion of Scythia. The battle of Marathon convinced him of his error, but still left him the idea that Greece must be easily crushed by a greater armament. He therefore called out the whole force of his empire; but, after three years of preparation, his attention was called off by the rebellion of Egypt, and the dispute between his sons for the succession [ARIABIGNES ; XERXES]; and the decision of this dispute was very soon followed by his death, B. C. 485, after a reign of 36 years, according to Herodotus Compp. Clinton, F. H. vol. ii. p. 313), or 31, according to Ctesias. There are two other events in the reign of Dareius which deserve notice : namely, the expedition against Libya, at the time of the Scythian expedition (Hdt. 4.145-205), and the voyage of Scylax of Caryanda down the Indus, which led to the discovery and subjugation of certain Indian tribes, whose position is uncertain (4.44). Diodorus (1.33, 58, 95) mentions some particu
Hellespont, which he crossed at Sestos, and staid for some time at Sardis, whence he sent Otanes to reduce those maritime cities on the north coast of the Aegean, Hellespont, and Bosporus, which still remained independent. The most important conquest of Otanes, were Byzantium, Chalcedon, and the islands of Imbrus and Lemnos. [OTANES.] Dareius himself then returned to Susa, leaving Artaphernes governor of Sardis. These operations were succeeded by a period of profound peace (about B. C. 505-501). The events which interrupted it, though insignificant in themselves, brought on the struggle in which the Athenians first, and then the other Greeks, repulsed the whole power of Persia. These events belong to the history of Greece, and to the biographies of other men. [ARISTAGORAS; HISTIAEUS ; HIFPIAS; MARDONIUS; MILTIADES ; ARTAPHERNES, &c.; Thirlwall's Hist. of Greece, 2.100.14.) It is a debated question whether Dareius was accidentally involved in his war with Greece by the course of eve
per was formed, and he was associated with the six other conspirators, who, by his advice, resolved to act without delay. [SMERDIS.] The discussions among the Persian chiefs, which ensued upon the death of the Magian, ended in favour of the monarchical form of government, which was advocated by Dareius, and Dareius himself was chosen to the kingdom by a sign, which had been agreed on by the conspirators, and which Dareius, with the aid of his groom Oebares, contrived to obtain for himself, B. C. 521. This account, instead of being a fiction, is quite in accordance with the spirit of the Persian religion. (Heeren's Asiatic Researches, ii. p. 350; comp. Tac. Germ. 10.) The usurpation of Smerdis seems to have been an attempt on the part of the Medes to regain their supremacy. The conspirators against him were noble Persians, and in all probability the chiefs of Persian tribes. Their discussion about the form of government to be adopted is evidently related by Herodotus according to Gre
by the Hellespont, which he crossed at Sestos, and staid for some time at Sardis, whence he sent Otanes to reduce those maritime cities on the north coast of the Aegean, Hellespont, and Bosporus, which still remained independent. The most important conquest of Otanes, were Byzantium, Chalcedon, and the islands of Imbrus and Lemnos. [OTANES.] Dareius himself then returned to Susa, leaving Artaphernes governor of Sardis. These operations were succeeded by a period of profound peace (about B. C. 505-501). The events which interrupted it, though insignificant in themselves, brought on the struggle in which the Athenians first, and then the other Greeks, repulsed the whole power of Persia. These events belong to the history of Greece, and to the biographies of other men. [ARISTAGORAS; HISTIAEUS ; HIFPIAS; MARDONIUS; MILTIADES ; ARTAPHERNES, &c.; Thirlwall's Hist. of Greece, 2.100.14.) It is a debated question whether Dareius was accidentally involved in his war with Greece by the course