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p. 19, 20; comp. Hartung. Eurip. Rest. pp. 41, &c., 401, &c. Hecuba. Hecuba. This play must have been exhibited before B. C. 423, as Aristophanes parodies a passage of it in the Clouds (1148), which he brought out in that year. Müller says that the passage in the Hecuba (645, ed. Pors.), ste/nei de\ kai/ tis k. t. l., " seems to refer to the misfortunes of the Spartans at Pylos in B. C. 425." This is certainly possible ; and, if it is the case, we may fix the refresentation the play in B. C. 424. Heracleidae. Heracleidae. Müller refers it, by conjecture, to, B. C. 421. Supplices. Supplices. This also he refers, by conjecture, to about the same period. Ion, Ion, of uncertain date. Hercules Furens, Hercules Furens, of uncertain date. Andromache, Andromache, referred by Müller, on conjecture, to the 90th Olympiad. (B. C. 420-417.) Troades. Troades. B. C. 415. Electra, Electra, assigned by Müller, on conjecture and from internal evidence, to the period of t
to/menos, applied to this former drama, see Wagner, Fragm. Eurip. p. 220, &c.; Valcken. Praef. in Hippol. pp. 19, 20; comp. Hartung. Eurip. Rest. pp. 41, &c., 401, &c. Hecuba. Hecuba. This play must have been exhibited before B. C. 423, as Aristophanes parodies a passage of it in the Clouds (1148), which he brought out in that year. Müller says that the passage in the Hecuba (645, ed. Pors.), ste/nei de\ kai/ tis k. t. l., " seems to refer to the misfortunes of the Spartans at Pylos in B. C. 425." This is certainly possible ; and, if it is the case, we may fix the refresentation the play in B. C. 424. Heracleidae. Heracleidae. Müller refers it, by conjecture, to, B. C. 421. Supplices. Supplices. This also he refers, by conjecture, to about the same period. Ion, Ion, of uncertain date. Hercules Furens, Hercules Furens, of uncertain date. Andromache, Andromache, referred by Müller, on conjecture, to the 90th Olympiad. (B. C. 420-417.) Troades. Troades. B. C.
on which the present tragedy was intended as an improvement, and in which the criminal love of Phaedra appears to have been represented in a more offensive manner, and as avowed by herself boldly and without restraint. For the conjectuad reasons of the title *Kalupto/menos, applied to this former drama, see Wagner, Fragm. Eurip. p. 220, &c.; Valcken. Praef. in Hippol. pp. 19, 20; comp. Hartung. Eurip. Rest. pp. 41, &c., 401, &c. Hecuba. Hecuba. This play must have been exhibited before B. C. 423, as Aristophanes parodies a passage of it in the Clouds (1148), which he brought out in that year. Müller says that the passage in the Hecuba (645, ed. Pors.), ste/nei de\ kai/ tis k. t. l., " seems to refer to the misfortunes of the Spartans at Pylos in B. C. 425." This is certainly possible ; and, if it is the case, we may fix the refresentation the play in B. C. 424. Heracleidae. Heracleidae. Müller refers it, by conjecture, to, B. C. 421. Supplices. Supplices. This also he refe
Mnesilochus, and that, in consequence of her infidelity, he wrote the Hippolytus to satirize the sex, and divorced her. He then married again, and his second wife, named Melitto, proved no better than the first. Now the Hippolytus was acted in B. C. 428, the Thesmophoriazusae of Aristophanes in 414, and at the latter period Euripides was still married to Choerilla, Mnesilochus being spoken of as his khdesth/s with no hint of the connexion having ceased. (See Thesm. 210, 289.) But what can be me four plays represented in this year by Euripides, who gained the third prize, were Medea, Philoctetis, Dictys, and Messores or *Qeristai/, a satyric drama. (See Hartung, Eur. Rest. pp. 332-374.) Hippolytus Coronifer. Hippolytus Coronifer. B. C. 428. In this year Euripides gained the first prize. For the reason of the title Coronifer (stefanhfo/ros), see vv. 72, &c. There was an older play, called the Veiled Hippolytus, no longer extant, on which the present tragedy was intended as an impr
d of Euripides was led at a very early period to that which afterwards became the business of his life, since he wrote a tragedy at the age of eighteen. That it was, therefore, exhibited, and that it was probably no other than the Rhesus are points unwarrantably concluded by Hartung (p. 6, &c.), who ascribes also to the same date the composition of the Veiled Hippolytus. The representation of the Peliades, the first play of Euripides which was acted, at least in his own name, took place in B. C. 455. This statement rests on the authority of his anonymous life, edited by Elmsley from a MS. in the Ambrosian library, and compared with that by Thomas Magister; and it is confirmed by the life in the MSS. of Paris, Vienna, and Copenhagen. In B. C. 441, Euripides gained for the first time the first prize, and he continued to exhibit plays until B. C. 408, the date of the Orestes. (See Clinton, sub annis.) Soon after this he left Athens for the court of ARCHELAUS, king of Macedonia, his reaso
a great book-collector, and it is recorded of him that he committed to memory certain treatises of Heracleitus, which he found hidden in the temple of Artemis, and which he was the first to introduce to the notice of Socrates. (Athen. 1.3a.; Tatian, Or. c. Graec. p. 143b.; Hartung, Eur. Rest. p. 131.) His intimacy with the latter is beyond a doubt, though we must reject the statement of Gellius (l.c.), that he received instruction from him in moral science, since Socrates was not born till B. C. 468, twelve years after the birth of Euripides. Traces of the teaching of Anaxagoras have been remarked in many passages both of the extant plays and of the fragments, and were impressed especially on the lost tragedy of Melanippa the Wise. (Orest. 545, 971; Pors. ad loc. ; Plat. Apol. p. 26d. e.; Troad. 879, Hel. 1014; Fragm. Melanip., ed. Wagner, p. 255; Cic. Tusc. Disp. 1.26; Hartung, p. 109; Barnes, ad Eur. Heracl. 529; Valck. Diatr. c. 4, &c.) The philosopher is also supposed to be allude
es, of course, the objection against the scene alluded to, as a " lamentable interruption to our feelings of commiseration for the calamities of Admetus,"--an objection which, as it seems to us, would even on other grounds be unenable. (See Herm. Dissert. de Eurip. Alceest., prefixed to Monk's edition of 1837.) While, however, we recognize this satyric character in the Alcestis, we must confess that we cannot, as Müller does, see anything farcical in the concluding scene. Medea. Medea. B. C. 431. The four plays represented in this year by Euripides, who gained the third prize, were Medea, Philoctetis, Dictys, and Messores or *Qeristai/, a satyric drama. (See Hartung, Eur. Rest. pp. 332-374.) Hippolytus Coronifer. Hippolytus Coronifer. B. C. 428. In this year Euripides gained the first prize. For the reason of the title Coronifer (stefanhfo/ros), see vv. 72, &c. There was an older play, called the Veiled Hippolytus, no longer extant, on which the present tragedy was intended as
brosian library, and compared with that by Thomas Magister; and it is confirmed by the life in the MSS. of Paris, Vienna, and Copenhagen. In B. C. 441, Euripides gained for the first time the first prize, and he continued to exhibit plays until B. C. 408, the date of the Orestes. (See Clinton, sub annis.) Soon after this he left Athens for the court of ARCHELAUS, king of Macedonia, his reasons for which step can only be matter of conjecture. Traditionary scandal has ascribed it to his disgust af the Sicilian expedition. (B. C. 415-413.) Helena. Helena. B. C. 412, in the same year with the lost play of the Andromeda. (Schol. ad Arist. Thesm. 1012.) Iphigeneia at Tauri. Iphigeneia at Tauri. Date uncertain. Orestes. Orestes. B. C. 408. Phoenissae. Phoenissae. The exact date is not known; but the play was one of the last exhibited at Athens by its author. (Schol. ad Arist. Ran. 53.) Bacchae. Bacchae. This play was apparently written for representation in Macedonia, an
urity of manhood fought in the battle, and Sophocles, a beautiful boy of 15, took part in the chorus at the festival which celebrated the victory. If again we follow the exact date of Eratosthenes, who represents Euripides as 75 at his death in B. C. 406, his birth must be assigned to B. C. 481, as Miller places it. It has also been said that he received his name in commemoration of the battle of Artemisium, which took place near the Euripus not long before he was born, and in the same year; bue, on the ground of the well-known line in the Hippolytus (607), supposed to be expressive of mental reservation. (Arist. Rhet. 3.15.8.) He did not live long to enjoy the honours and pleasures of the Macedonian court, as his death took place in B. C. 406. Most testimonies agree in stating that he was torn in pieces by the king's dogs, which, according to some, were set upon him through envy by Arrhidaeus and Crateuas, two rival poets. But even with the account of his end scandal has been busy,
Müller refers it, by conjecture, to, B. C. 421. Supplices. Supplices. This also he refers, by conjecture, to about the same period. Ion, Ion, of uncertain date. Hercules Furens, Hercules Furens, of uncertain date. Andromache, Andromache, referred by Müller, on conjecture, to the 90th Olympiad. (B. C. 420-417.) Troades. Troades. B. C. 415. Electra, Electra, assigned by Müller, on conjecture and from internal evidence, to the period of the Sicilian expedition. (B. C. 415-413.) Helena. Helena. B. C. 412, in the same year with the lost play of the Andromeda. (Schol. ad Arist. Thesm. 1012.) Iphigeneia at Tauri. Iphigeneia at Tauri. Date uncertain. Orestes. Orestes. B. C. 408. Phoenissae. Phoenissae. The exact date is not known; but the play was one of the last exhibited at Athens by its author. (Schol. ad Arist. Ran. 53.) Bacchae. Bacchae. This play was apparently written for representation in Macedonia, and therefore at a very late period of the
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