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ess Eusebia, an excellent woman, who loved Julian with the tenderness of a sister, the young prince obtained an interview view Constantius, and having succeeded in cahniag the cmperor's suspicions, was allowed to lead a private life at Athens (A. D. 355). Athens was then the centre of Greek learning, and there Julian spent short but delightful period in intercourse with the most celebrated philosophers, scholars, and artists of the time, and in the society of a company of young men who were dea common soldier. In his administration he was just and forbearing; and never discouraged by adversity nor inflated by success, he showed himself worthy to reign over others, because he could reign over himself. Julian arrived in Gaul late in A. D. 355, and, after having stayed the winter at Vienna (Vienne in Dauphiné), he set out in the spring of 356 to drive the barbarians back over the Rhine. In this campaign he fought against the Alemanni, the invaders of Southern Gaul. He made their firs
ichton," Betrachtungen über den Abfall Julian's;" and by others. Other lost works of Julian are: *Peri\ tw=n triw=n sxhma/twn; *Peri\ tou= po/qen ta\ kaka\ kata\ tou\s a)paideu/toud; *Ta\ kalou/mena *Kpo/nia; Memoirs on his Campaigns in Germany; his Journal, in which he used to write down the events of every day; and others, especially many letters. Julian composed his works in the following chronological order:--The Encomia on Constantius; the Encomium on the Empress Eusebia, not before A. D. 356; the Letter to Sallustius, in A. D. 360; the Letter to the Senate and the People of Athens, in A. D. 360; the Letter to Themistius, and the Oration on Helius, in 361; the *Kai/sares, in the winter of 361-362, or perhaps in the following year; most of his extant Letters during the same period; one of his Orations on false Cynicism, and that on the Mother of Gods, as well as a Letter on the restoration of ancient Hellenism, of which a fragment is extant, in 362; the Misopogon in the beginni
Julia'nus, Fla'vius Clau'dius or Clau'dius Apostata surnamed APOSTATA, "the Apostate," Roman emperor, A. D. 361-363, was born at Constantinople on the 17th of November, A. D. 331 (332?). He was the son of Julius Constantius by his second wife, Basilina, the grandson of Constantius Chlorus by his second wife, Theodora, and the nephew of Constantine the Great. [See the Genealogical Table, Vol. I. pp. 831, 832.] Julian and his elder brother, Flavius Julius Gallus, who was the son of Julius Cons appearance of Julian on the Danube, Constantius set out from Syria to defend his capital; and a terrible civil war threatened to desolate Italy and the East, to when Constantius suddenly died at Mopsocrene in Cilicia, on the third of November, A. D. 361, leaving the whole empire to the undisputed posses sion of Julian. On the 11th of December following, Julian made his triumphal entrance into Constantinople. Shortly afterwards the mortal remains of Constantius arrived in the Golden Horn, and h
the events of every day; and others, especially many letters. Julian composed his works in the following chronological order:--The Encomia on Constantius; the Encomium on the Empress Eusebia, not before A. D. 356; the Letter to Sallustius, in A. D. 360; the Letter to the Senate and the People of Athens, in A. D. 360; the Letter to Themistius, and the Oration on Helius, in 361; the *Kai/sares, in the winter of 361-362, or perhaps in the following year; most of his extant Letters during the saA. D. 360; the Letter to Themistius, and the Oration on Helius, in 361; the *Kai/sares, in the winter of 361-362, or perhaps in the following year; most of his extant Letters during the same period; one of his Orations on false Cynicism, and that on the Mother of Gods, as well as a Letter on the restoration of ancient Hellenism, of which a fragment is extant, in 362; the Misopogon in the beginning of 363; and the *Kata\ *Xristianw=n finished during his expedition against the Persians, in the summer of 363. Further Information The works of Julian; Amm. Marc. 5.8-25.5; most of the Orations and Epistles of Libanius, especially, Oratio Parentalis; Ad Antiochenos de Imperatoris Ir
Julia'nus, Fla'vius Clau'dius or Clau'dius Apostata surnamed APOSTATA, "the Apostate," Roman emperor, A. D. 361-363, was born at Constantinople on the 17th of November, A. D. 331 (332?). He was the son of Julius Constantius by his second wife, Basilina, the grandson of Constantius Chlorus by his second wife, Theodora, and the nephew of Constantine the Great. [See the Genealogical Table, Vol. I. pp. 831, 832.] Julian and his elder brother, Flavius Julius Gallus, who was the son of Julius Constantius by his first wife, Galla, were the only members of the imperial family whose lives were spared by Constantius II., the son of Constantine the Great, when, upon his accession, he ordered the massacre of all the male descendants of Constantine Chlorus and his second wife, Theodora. Both Gallus and Julian were of too tender an age to be dangerous to Constantius, who accordingly spared their lives, but had them educated in strict confinement at different places in Ionia and Bithynia, and aft
Julia'nus, Fla'vius Clau'dius or Clau'dius Apostata surnamed APOSTATA, "the Apostate," Roman emperor, A. D. 361-363, was born at Constantinople on the 17th of November, A. D. 331 (332?). He was the son of Julius Constantius by his second wife, Basilina, the grandson of Constantius Chlorus by his second wife, Theodora, and the nephew of Constantine the Great. [See the Genealogical Table, Vol. I. pp. 831, 832.] Julian and his elder brother, Flavius Julius Gallus, who was the son of Julius Constantius by his first wife, Galla, were the only members of the imperial family whose lives were spared by Constantius II., the son of Constantine the Great, when, upon his accession, he ordered the massacre of all the male descendants of Constantine Chlorus and his second wife, Theodora. Both Gallus and Julian were of too tender an age to be dangerous to Constantius, who accordingly spared their lives, but had them educated in strict confinement at different places in Ionia and Bithynia, and aft
Venice, 1499, 4to., contains only 48 letters; Spanheim published 63 in his edition of the works of Julian; others were found in later times, four of which are printed in Fabricius, Biblioth. Graec.; the last and best edition is by L. H. Heyler, Mainz, 1828, 8vo.; it contains 83 letters, with a Latin translation and a commentary of the editor. There are besides some fragments of lost letters. Among the letters of Julian, there is also one which was written to him by his brother Gallus, in A. D. 353, who advises him to remain faithful to the Christian religion. The authenticity of several letters is contested. They treat on various subjects, and are of great importance for the history of the time. One, which was addressed to the senate and people of Athens, and in which the author explains the motives of his having taken up arms against the emperor Constantius, is an interesting and most important historical document. II. Orations. 1. *)Egkw/mion pro\s au)tokra/tora *Kwnsta/ntion
: their teachers were Nicocles Luco, a grammarian, and Ecebolus, a rhetorician, who acted under the superintendence of the eunuch Mardonius, probably a pagan in secret, and of Eusebius, an Arian, afterwards bishop of Nicomedeia. Gallus was the first who was released from his slavery by being appointed Caesar in A. D. 351, and governor of the East, and it was through his mediation that Julian obtained more liberty. The conduct of Gallus in his government, and his execution by Constantius in A. D. 354, are detailed elsewhere. [CONSTANTIUS II., p. 848.] Julian was now in great danger, and the emperor would probably have sacrificed him to his jealousy but for the circumstance that he had no male issue himself, and that Julian was consequently the only other surviving male of the imperial family. Constantius was satisfied with removing Julian from Asia to Italy, and kept him for some time in close confinement at Milan, where he lived surrounded by spies, and in constant fear of sharing the
their words and actions to a jealous and bloodthirsty tyrant. However, they received a careful and learned education, and were brought up in the principles of the Christian religion: their teachers were Nicocles Luco, a grammarian, and Ecebolus, a rhetorician, who acted under the superintendence of the eunuch Mardonius, probably a pagan in secret, and of Eusebius, an Arian, afterwards bishop of Nicomedeia. Gallus was the first who was released from his slavery by being appointed Caesar in A. D. 351, and governor of the East, and it was through his mediation that Julian obtained more liberty. The conduct of Gallus in his government, and his execution by Constantius in A. D. 354, are detailed elsewhere. [CONSTANTIUS II., p. 848.] Julian was now in great danger, and the emperor would probably have sacrificed him to his jealousy but for the circumstance that he had no male issue himself, and that Julian was consequently the only other surviving male of the imperial family. Constantius wa