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arrhae, and thence made his escape to Syria with 500 horsemen by another way. After crossing the Euphrates, he collected the remains of the Roman army, and made preparations to defend the province against the Parthians. The enemy did not cross the river till the following year, B. C. 52, and then only with a small force, which was easily driven back by Cassius, upon whom the government of the province had devolved as proquaestor, as no successor to Crassus had yet been appointed. Next year, B. C. 5], the Parthians again crossed the river, with a much larger army, under the command of Osaces and Pacorus, the son of Orodes, the Parthian king. As M. Bibulus, who had been appointed proconsul of Syria, had not yet arrived, the conduct of the war again devolved upon Cassius. He thought it more prudent to retire at first before the Parthians, and threw himself into the strongly fortified city of Antioch; and when the barbarians withdrew finding it impossible to take the place, he followed th
Longi'nus, Ca'ssius 11. C. Cassius Longinus, the murderer of Julius Caesar, is sometimes represented as the son of the preceding [No. 10], but this is quite uncertain. He first appears in history as the quaestor of Crassus in his unfortunate campaign against the Parthians in B. C. 53, in which he greatly distinguished himself by his prudence and military skill ; and if his advice had been followed by Crassus, the result of the campaign would probably have been very different. Indeed at first he attempted to dissuade Crassus from invading the country of the Parthians at all, and recommended him to take up a strong position on the Euphrates. In the fatal battle of Carrhae Cassius commanded one of the wings of the Roman army, and recommended the Roman general to extend his line, in order to prevent the enemy from attacking them on their flank, and likewise to distribute cavalry on the wings; but here again his advice was not followed. After the defeat of the Roman army, Cassius and the l
uite willing to resign it. In the retreat from Carrhae, which they were soon afterwards obliged to make, Crassus was misled by the guides, and killed [CRASSUS, p. 878]; but Cassius, suspecting treachery, returned to Carrhae, and thence made his escape to Syria with 500 horsemen by another way. After crossing the Euphrates, he collected the remains of the Roman army, and made preparations to defend the province against the Parthians. The enemy did not cross the river till the following year, B. C. 52, and then only with a small force, which was easily driven back by Cassius, upon whom the government of the province had devolved as proquaestor, as no successor to Crassus had yet been appointed. Next year, B. C. 5], the Parthians again crossed the river, with a much larger army, under the command of Osaces and Pacorus, the son of Orodes, the Parthian king. As M. Bibulus, who had been appointed proconsul of Syria, had not yet arrived, the conduct of the war again devolved upon Cassius. He
him on his success (ad Fam. 15.14.3), but notwithstanding this attempted, in every possible way, to rob him of the honour of the victory. (Ad Fam. 3.8, 8.10, ad Att. 5.21.) On the arrival of Bibulus, Cassius returned to Italy. He expected to be accused of extortion; and he was generally supposed, and apparently with justice, to have fleeced the provincials unmercifully. But the breaking out of the civil war, almost immediately afterwards, saved him from the accusation which he dreaded. In B. C. 49 Cassius was tribune of the plebs. He was a supporter of the aristocratical party, and, with the rest of the leaders of that party, left Rome in the month of January. He crossed over to Greece with Pompey in the month of March, and subsequently received the command of the Syrian, Phoenician, and Cilician ships. With these he went to Sicily in the following year, B. C. 48, where he burnt off Messana thirty-five ships, commanded by the Caesarian, M. Pomponius, and subsequently five ships belon
But the breaking out of the civil war, almost immediately afterwards, saved him from the accusation which he dreaded. In B. C. 49 Cassius was tribune of the plebs. He was a supporter of the aristocratical party, and, with the rest of the leaders of that party, left Rome in the month of January. He crossed over to Greece with Pompey in the month of March, and subsequently received the command of the Syrian, Phoenician, and Cilician ships. With these he went to Sicily in the following year, B. C. 48, where he burnt off Messana thirty-five ships, commanded by the Caesarian, M. Pomponius, and subsequently five ships belonging to the squadron of Sulpicius and Libo. After that he made many descents upon the coasts of Sicily and Italy, till the news of the battle of Pharsalia obliged him to put a stop to his devastations. Cassius sailed to the Hellespont, with the hope of inducing Pharnaces to join him against Caesar; but in that sea he accidentally fell in with Caesar, and although he ha
e other wing, defeated Cassius and obtained possession of his camp. Cassius himself, supposing all was lost, and ignorant of the success of Brutus, commanded his freedman Pindarus to put an end to his life. Brutus mourned over his companion, calling him the last of the Romans, and caused him to be buried in Thasos. Cassius was married to Junia Tertia or Tertulla, half-sister of his confederate, M. Brutus: she survived him upwards of sixty years, and did not die till the reign of Tiberius, A. D. 22. [JUNIA, No. 3.] Only one of his children is mentioned [See No. 13], and we do not know whether he had any more. Cassius was a man of literary tastes and habits. He received instruction in the Greek language and literature from Archelaus of Rhodes, and he both wrote and spoke Greek with facility. He was a follower of the Epicurean philosophy; but was absteimious and simple in his mode of life. His abilities were considerable; and though he would certainly have been incapable, like Caesar
n him against Caesar; but in that sea he accidentally fell in with Caesar, and although he had a much larger force, he was so much astonished and alarmed at meeting with the conqueror, that he did not attempt to make any resistance, but surrendered himself unconditionally into his power. Caesar not only forgave hint, but made him soon afterwards one of his legates. Whether Cassius took part in the Alexandrian war, is unknown; but he appears to have been engaged in that against Pharnaces. In B. C. 46 he remained in Rome, as he did not wish to accompany Caesar to Africa in order to fight against his former friends, and he was busily engaged during this time in studying along with Cicero. In the following year, B. C. 45, he retired from Rome to Brundisium, waiting to hear the result of the struggle in Spain, and intending to return to Rome on the first news of the victory of the dictator. During this time he and Cicero kept up a diligent correspondence with one another. (Cic. Fam. 17-19;
esistance, but surrendered himself unconditionally into his power. Caesar not only forgave hint, but made him soon afterwards one of his legates. Whether Cassius took part in the Alexandrian war, is unknown; but he appears to have been engaged in that against Pharnaces. In B. C. 46 he remained in Rome, as he did not wish to accompany Caesar to Africa in order to fight against his former friends, and he was busily engaged during this time in studying along with Cicero. In the following year, B. C. 45, he retired from Rome to Brundisium, waiting to hear the result of the struggle in Spain, and intending to return to Rome on the first news of the victory of the dictator. During this time he and Cicero kept up a diligent correspondence with one another. (Cic. Fam. 17-19; comp. ad Att. 13.22.) In B. C. 44 Cassius was praetor peregrinus, and was to receive the province of Syria next year. But although his life had been spared, and he was thus raised to honours by Caesar, yet he was the aut
did not wish to accompany Caesar to Africa in order to fight against his former friends, and he was busily engaged during this time in studying along with Cicero. In the following year, B. C. 45, he retired from Rome to Brundisium, waiting to hear the result of the struggle in Spain, and intending to return to Rome on the first news of the victory of the dictator. During this time he and Cicero kept up a diligent correspondence with one another. (Cic. Fam. 17-19; comp. ad Att. 13.22.) In B. C. 44 Cassius was praetor peregrinus, and was to receive the province of Syria next year. But although his life had been spared, and he was thus raised to honours by Caesar, yet he was the author of the conspiracy against the dictator's life. He was said to have been deeply aggrieved, because M. Brutus, although his junior, had been appointed by Caesar as city praetor, in preference to himself; but this slight only exasperated the feelings he had previously entertained. He had never ceased to be
former victories over the Parthians had gained him a great reputation, Cassius soon collected a considerable army. He was joined by the troops of Caecilius Bassus, the Pompeian, as well as by those of the Caesarian generals, who had for some years been carrying on war against one another. [BASSUS, CAECILIUS.] His army was still further strengthened by the addition of four legions, commanded by A. Allienus, the legate of Dolabella, and which went over to Cassius in Judea, at the beginning of B. C. 43. Cassius was now prepared to meet Dolabella; he was at the head of twelve legions, besides the troops which he had brought with him into Syria. The senate, meantime, who had come to an open rupture with Antony, confirmed Cassius in his province, and entrusted to him the conduct of the war against Dolabella. The latter, after he had killed Trebonius in Smyrna, entered Syria in the month of April. After an unsuccessful attack upon Antioch, he obtained possession of Laodiceia, where he maintai
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