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espoused the cause of the Aetolians. It was evident there-fore that the chief burden of the war would devolve upon Philip and the Achaeans, and the young king returned to Macedonia to prepare for the contest. (Plb. 4.5, 9, 16, 19, 22-29, 31-36; Plut. Arat. 47). His first care was to fortify his own frontiers against the neighboring barbarians, and he was able to conclude a treaty with Scerdilaidas, king of Illyria, who undertook to assail the Aetolians by sea. Early in the ensuing spring (B. C. 219) Philip entered Epeirus with an army of 15,000 foot and 800 horse, and was quickly joined by the whole forces of the Epeirots and Acarnanians; but his successes were limited to the reduction of some forts and towns on the frontiers of Aetolia and Acarnania, and to the ravage of the adjoining country, when he was recalled to Macedonia by the news of an invasion of the Dardanians. The barbarians, indeed, retired on hearing of his return, but Philip spent the remainder of the summer and autum
totally defeated a force of Aetolian and Eleian troops under Euripidas, and following up his advantage, took the strong fortress of Psophis by a sudden assault, laid waste without opposition the rich plains of Elis, and then advancing into Triphylia, made himself master of the whole of that region, though abounding in strongholds, within six days. After this brilliant campaign. he took up his quarters at Argos for the remainder of the winter. (Polyh. 4.37, 57, 61-82.) The ensuing spring (B. C. 218) he first turned his attention to the reduction of the important island of Cephallenia, but failed in an attack on the city of Palae in consequence of the treachery and misconduct of one of his own officers, Leontius, who purposely prevented the troops under his command from carrying the breach by assault. Hereupon Philip abandoned the enterprise; but landing suddenly at the head of the Ambracian gulf, he penetrated unexpectedly into the heart of Aetolia, where he surprised the capital cit
s one of the ablest and most eminent of the Macedonian monarchs. It appears that he was born in the year B. C. 237, and he was thus only eight years old at the death of his father Demetrius. The sovereign power was consequently assumed by his uncle Antigonus Doson, who, though he certainly ruled as king rather than merely as guardian of his nephew, was faithful to the interests of Philip, whom he regarded as his natural successor, and to whom he transferred the sovereignty at his death, in B. C. 220, to the exclusion of his own children. (Plb. 2.45, 70, 4.2; Paus. 8.8.9; Just. 28.4; Porphyr. ap. Euseb. Arm. p. 158.) He was careful however to appoint friends of his own to all the more important offices of the state; one of whom, Apelles, bore the title of guardian of the young king (Plb. 4.87), though the latter seems to have in fact assumed the administration of affairs into his own hands from the very beginning of his reign. The prudent and vigorous administration of Antigonus had gr
were engaged in the contest with Antiochus, and stood in need of the support of the Macedonian king, he had been allowed to retain possession of the conquests he had made during that war; and though Athamania had been again wrested from him by Amynander and the Aetolians, he still held many towns in Perrhaebia and Thessaly, which he had captured from the Aetolians, with the express permission of Acilius Glabrio. But after the fall of Antiochus, deputies from those states appeared at Rome (B. C. 185), to demand the restitution of the cities in question, and at the same time Eumenes warned the senate of the increasing power of Philip, who was diligently employed in strengthening hisinternal resources, while he was secretly enlarging his frontiers on the side of Thrace, and had made himself master of the important cities of Aenus and Maroneia. This was enough to arouse the jealousy of the senate. After the usual form of sending deputies to inquire into the matters on the spot, it was de
ediately stationed a fleet at Brundusium, to prevent him from crossing into Italy; while the king himself, on the contrary? regained for a long time in ignorance of the result of his negotiations, and it was not till late in the following year (B. C. 215) that he sent a second embassy, and a treaty of alliance was detinitively concluded between him and the Carthaginian general. (Liv. 23.33, 34, 38, 39 ; Plb. 3.2, 7.9; Appian, App. Mac. 1; Justin, 29.4.) Whether Philip really meditated at thishave seemed likely, at this juncture, to facilitate his communications with Italy. Meanwhile, the proceedings of Philip in Greece were but too well calculated to alienate all the favourable dispositions previously entertained to wards him. In B. C. 215, he had interposed in the affairs of Messenia, in a manner that led to a fearful massacre of the oligarchical party in that state: the reproaches of Aratus on this occasion were bitter and vehement, and from henceforth all friendship was at an
east of the Adriatic, it is certain that his proceedings were marked by an unaccountable degree of hesitation and delay. He suffered the remainder of the season of 215 to pass away without any active measures, and though in the following year (B. C. 214), he at length appeared in the Adriatic with a fleet, with which he took the town of Oricus, and laid siege to the important city of Apollonia, his arms were soon paralysed by the arrival of a small Roman force under M. Laevnus, and he was not as at an end between them. Philip was, however, still so far swayed by his influence as to refrain at that time from the design of seizing by treachery on the fortress of Ithome: but after his return from his unsuccessful expedition to Illyria (B. C. 214) he returned to this project, and sent Demetrius of Pharos to carry it into execution. The latter was killed in the attempt; but his death produced no change in the counsels of Philip, who now invaded Messenia himself, and laid waste the open c
Sparta itself, laid waste the whole country as far as Taenarus and Malea and on his return totally defeated the forces with which Lycurgus had occupied the heights near Sparta, in order to, intercept his retreat. (Id. 5.17-24.) An attempt was now made byy the Chians and Rhodians to effect a peace by their mediation; but though Philip consented to a truce for the purpose of carrying on the negotiations, these proved abortive, and the war was still continued. The operations of the next year (B. C. 217) were less brilliant, but fortune still favoured the arms of Philip and his allies; the king, who had returned to Macedonia, took the important fortress of Bylazora, in Paeonia, which was well calculated to check the inroads of the Dardanians, and afterwards invaded Thessaly, where he reduced the Phthiotic Thebes. The Achaeans, on their side, had raised large forces, and carried on the war with much success in the Peloponnese. Meanwhile, events of far greater importance had been passing in
ndoned the alliance of the Macedonian monarch, by whom he deemed himself aggrieved; and had taken advantage of Philip's absence in Greece to occupy some towns and fortresses on the frontiers of the two countries. The recovery of these occupied Philip during the remainder of the summer of 217, and the winter was spent principally in the preparation and equipment of a fleet with which he designed to attack thecoastsof Illyria. But scarcely had be entered the Adriatic in the following summer (B. C. 216), when the rumour that a Roman fleet was coming to the assistance of Scerdilaidas inspired him with such alarm that he made a hasty retreat to Cephallenia, and afterwards withdrew to Macedonia, the younger Aratus. At length the king was without attempting anything farther (Plb. 5.108-110). But the news of the great disaster sustainted by the Roman arms at Cannae soon after decided Philip openly to espouse the cause of Carthage, and he despatched Xenophanes to Italy to conclude a treaty of
mp in a strong position near the pass of Antigoneia, where it completely commanded the direct route into Macedonia, Viilius advanced to a position near that of the king, but was wholly unable to force the pass; and while he was still deliberating what to do, his successor Flamininus arrived and took the command of the army. (Id. ib. 5, 6, 9.) The events of the war from this period till its termination have been already fully given under FLAMININUS. By the peace finally granted to Philip (B. C. 196), the king was compelled to abandon all his conquests, both in Europe and Asia, withdraw his garrisons from all Greek cities, surrender his whole fleet to the Romans, and limit his standing army to 5000 men, besides paying a sum of 1000 talents. Among the hostages given for the fulfilmeant of these hard conditions, was his son Demetrius. (Plb. 18.27; Liv. 33.30.) Whatever resentment and enmity he might still entertain against his conquerors, Philip was now effectually humbled, and it is ce
be converted into one of alliance (Plb. 18.31); and in the following year (195), he sent a strong body of auxiliaries to the assistance of Flamininus against Nabis. (Liv. 34.26.) At a subsequent period he resisted all the efforts of the Aetolian envoy, Nicander, to induce him once more to take up arms in concert with Antiochus, as well as the tempting offers of that monarch himself, who spared no promises in order to gain him over to his alliance. (Id. 35.12, 39.28.) At the commencement of B. C. 191, he sent ambassadors to Rome, with offers of support and assistance against Antiochus, who was then already in Greece. The Syriann king had the imprudence at this time to give personal offence to Philip, who immediately engaged in measures of more active hostility, lent all the assistance in his power to the Roman praetor, Baebius, and co-operated with the Romans in the siege of Limnaea, while he took the opportunity to expel Amynander from Athamania, and make himself master of that provin
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