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Sebastopol (Pennsylvania, United States) (search for this): chapter 4
the sea, proceed against the Russian left wing, draw the attention of the Russians to it, and force them to make a detachment in this direction. 3d. The division of Bosquet, 6750 men, to attack the Russian right wing at 5.30. 4th. The divisions of Canrobert, Napoleon and Forey, to advance at 6 o'clock, when the whole Russian force is completely engaged, turn the Russian right wing, attack the regiment Uglitz, and establish itself on the Russian lines of retreat. With 21,000 French on their line of retreat, to which the Russians had not one man to oppose, with 33,000 English and French in front, and 6000 Turks on their left flank, all attacking at the same time and all in communication, it Battle of the Alma. Battle of Wagram. is probable that the Russians would have been obliged to surrender. Sebastopol would have been the easy trophy of the victors, as it was without garrison at the time of the battle, after which only it was supplied from the army of Menschikoff.
Leipzig (Saxony, Germany) (search for this): chapter 4
an enemy who cannot easily move from his position, and can therefore undertake no concentric fire on the first echelon, as would be the case in the attack of an entrenched camp. Lines of battle with crotchets may be used by the aggressor; for the party attacked they are always dangerous, the corner being exposed to a concentric fire. The battle of Prague, fought by Frederick II. against the Austrians, will be the example for this order of battle. Convex lines of battle were used at Leipsic and on different other occasions; we are often obliged to use them after the passage of a river. They offer one great disadvantage; if broken at one point, the enemy finds himself at once in the rear of his adversary's whole formation of battle. Concave lines of battle have sometimes been used. Hannibal's formation at Cunna was such. They should, however, only be adopted according to circumstances; if, for instance, the enemy's position forces us to it, or if this formation is the con
Talavera (Spain) (search for this): chapter 4
he required positions. In the first case, only defeat, in the second, total destruction, may be the consequence. The first, where the decision takes place, will be in our own lines; in the second, it will be in advance of them. The general battle arrangements and orders of battle, as wall as many other considerations, will be the same as those of offensive battles; they will, therefore, be treated in the next chapter. I will give two examples — the plans of the battles of Austerlitz and Talavera — for the better understanding of battles of the offensive defense. The battle of Talavera is an illustration of the first, and that of Austerlitz of the second case. Offensive battles. We are conducted to such battles if the nature of the war is aggressive; or if the enemy opposes the attainment of our strategical object; or if we are forced by the manoeuvres of the enemy; and, finally, if by a wrong movement he exposes his army, or parts of it, to certain defeat. In an offensive
Hannibal (Missouri, United States) (search for this): chapter 4
exposed to a concentric fire. The battle of Prague, fought by Frederick II. against the Austrians, will be the example for this order of battle. Convex lines of battle were used at Leipsic and on different other occasions; we are often obliged to use them after the passage of a river. They offer one great disadvantage; if broken at one point, the enemy finds himself at once in the rear of his adversary's whole formation of battle. Concave lines of battle have sometimes been used. Hannibal's formation at Cunna was such. They should, however, only be adopted according to circumstances; if, for instance, the enemy's position forces us to it, or if this formation is the consequence of the advancing fight, the center giving way and the two wings approaching. Such is said to have been the plan of the Austrians in the battle of Solferino, 1859. Examples: example of battle with two wings reinforced. Battle of the Alma. Fought the 20th September, 1854, between the Russ
Prague (Czech Republic) (search for this): chapter 4
ue or perpendicular lines should only be attempted when the aggressor is of very great superiority. Attacks in echelons may be used against an enemy who cannot easily move from his position, and can therefore undertake no concentric fire on the first echelon, as would be the case in the attack of an entrenched camp. Lines of battle with crotchets may be used by the aggressor; for the party attacked they are always dangerous, the corner being exposed to a concentric fire. The battle of Prague, fought by Frederick II. against the Austrians, will be the example for this order of battle. Convex lines of battle were used at Leipsic and on different other occasions; we are often obliged to use them after the passage of a river. They offer one great disadvantage; if broken at one point, the enemy finds himself at once in the rear of his adversary's whole formation of battle. Concave lines of battle have sometimes been used. Hannibal's formation at Cunna was such. They should,
Borodino (New York, United States) (search for this): chapter 4
tself in the position R on the plan, and the French and English in A F. The Russians retreated in the best order, and unmolested by the enemy. We may well ask if 61,000 French and English could not have done better than to force 35,000 Russians to a well-ordered retreat. The dispositions of the Russian commander, Prince Menschikoff, were made in the expectation of a main attack on the road to Burluk; this road was well swept by a battery of four 32-pounders; and in case the regiment Borodino (15th) was driven back, the advancing columns of the enemy would have been assailed on all sides by such a fire that their retreat would have been very probable. His plan of battle was of an offensive defense, but becoming offensive only at the moment the enemy entered his own lines. His front was about 7000 yards long, and counted, therefore, five men for every yard of the front, which number was quite sufficient, considering the nature of the ground. His position is given in the small
Two Points (Minnesota, United States) (search for this): chapter 4
of the three zones, Fig. 21. Fig. 21. 2d. The line of battle is a straight line, but inclined to that of the enemy. It has-- a. One point of attack, properly called an oblique line of battle, Figs. 22, 23. Fig. 22. Fig. 23. b. Two points of attack, Fig. 24. Fig. 24. In a and b, the angles can be 90 or under 90 degrees. 3d. The line of battle is a broken one formed in echelons. a. One point of attack, Fig. 25. Fig. 25. b. Two points of attack, Fig. 26. Fig. 2Two points of attack, Fig. 26. Fig. 26. 4th. The line of battle is a straight one, but forms a crotchet on one flank, Fig. 27. Fig. 27. 5th. The line of battle is a curve. a. Concave, Fig. 28. Fig. 28. b. Convex, Fig. 29. Fig. 29. The first order of battle, being a straight line without any reinforcement, would be. the arrangement, as the French would say, of a sabreur. This battle would represent the primitive state of the art of war. However, there is one case in which we would adopt it, and even be oblig
Russian River (Alaska, United States) (search for this): chapter 4
athcart5250 Division of Cavalry800 Total61,000 With 136 guns, consisting principally of 9 and 12 pounders. The Russian army consisted of-- Infantry30,000 Cavalry3000 Artillery2000 Total35,000 With 96 guns, part of which were lig--Sir Lacy Evans and Brown. In second line — Richard England and Guards. In reserve — Cathcart and Cavalry. The Russian army had taken a defensive position on the heights of the left bank of the Alma. (See plan.) The allies, after having rRussians — was in Tact obtained by the allies' wrong execution of their plan, only with greater loss on both sides. The Russian right wing not being attacked, Menschikoff could very well defend himself as long as he pleased; his communications and ian right wing at 5.30. 4th. The divisions of Canrobert, Napoleon and Forey, to advance at 6 o'clock, when the whole Russian force is completely engaged, turn the Russian right wing, attack the regiment Uglitz, and establish itself on the Russia<
t we must carry with us in the field, besides the difference in the weight of the guns and the more or less mobility which would be the consequence. I think the question should be answered in the negative, and has been answered so by nearly all European artilleries; the consequence was that, in nearly all European armies, rifled 4-pounders, firing a 9 to 10 pound shell, were introduced, as the only field guns, and we may say that the construction of this gun was the solution of the greatest proEuropean armies, rifled 4-pounders, firing a 9 to 10 pound shell, were introduced, as the only field guns, and we may say that the construction of this gun was the solution of the greatest problem of artillery since the invention of powder. The Armstrong, Whitworth, and many other rifled guns, corresponding in their weight more to the smooth-bored 6-pounders, all those beautiful weapons may be said to be of faulty construction as field guns; they possess an excess of power, but are far from having the mobility of the rifled 4-pounder. This rifled gun is drawn by only four horses, and served by only six men. The Prussian 4-pounder gun is, however, in nearly every respect superior to
Austerlitz (Ohio, United States) (search for this): chapter 4
eneral battle arrangements and orders of battle, as wall as many other considerations, will be the same as those of offensive battles; they will, therefore, be treated in the next chapter. I will give two examples — the plans of the battles of Austerlitz and Talavera — for the better understanding of battles of the offensive defense. The battle of Talavera is an illustration of the first, and that of Austerlitz of the second case. Offensive battles. We are conducted to such battles if Austerlitz of the second case. Offensive battles. We are conducted to such battles if the nature of the war is aggressive; or if the enemy opposes the attainment of our strategical object; or if we are forced by the manoeuvres of the enemy; and, finally, if by a wrong movement he exposes his army, or parts of it, to certain defeat. In an offensive battle two things may occur:-- 1st. That the enemy awaits us in a chosen position. 2d. That we meet him unexpectedly on the march. In the second case the general dispositions are the same as in the first, with the exception
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