the separation of these States from the former Union.
Four of the States now members of the Confederacy were recognized by name as independent sovereignties in a treaty of peace concluded in the year 1783, with one of the two great maritime Powers of Western Europe, and had been prior to that period allies in war of the other.
In the year 1778 they formed a union with nine other States under Articles of Confederation.
Dissatisfied with that Union, three of them — Virginia, Carolina, and Georgia--together with eight of the States now members of the United States, seceded from it in 1789, and these eleven seceding State formed a second Union, although by the terms of the Articles o?? Confederation express provision was made that the first Union should be perpetual.
Their right to secede, notwithstanding this provision, was never contested by the States from which they separated, nor made the subject of discussion with any third power.
When, at a later period, North-Carolina accede