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Browsing named entities in a specific section of The Photographic History of The Civil War: in ten volumes, Thousands of Scenes Photographed 1861-65, with Text by many Special Authorities, Volume 5: Forts and Artillery. (ed. Francis Trevelyan Miller). Search the whole document.

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Gaines Mill (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 11
sses of men of the hostile armies. It was in the campaign to follow that the important instruction in the art was to come. The progress of the Federals was energetically disputed by inferior numbers in field-works at Williamsburg, which was not so solidly fortified as Yorktown. A large Fort with six redoubts bar-red the road into the town, but, with the flanks not well protected, the position could be turned, and the Union troops did not wait to undertake a siege. At Mechanicsville, Gaines' Mill, Seven Pines, Malvern Hill, and Harrison's Federal fortifications at Allatoona pass, Georgia When Sherman's army passed this point — early in June, 1864--entrenching was becoming a fine art with the American armies. From the battle of New Hope Church, on May 25th, almost every advanced line on either side entrenched itself as spon as its position was taken up. Not to be outdone by their Western comrades, the great armies operating in Virginia also got down and dug dirt. In timber,
Resaca (Georgia, United States) (search for this): chapter 11
y to approach directly. Here is where the saproller comes into play. It is rolled at the head of the trench in such a manner as to protect the workmen from their opponents' fire. It must therefore be thick enough to stop bullets. To construct a sap-roller in the form shown, two cylindrical baskets of the same length are made, a small one to form the interior wall, and a larger one for the outer wall. The sap and the Coonskin tower at Vicksburg, 1863 A sap-roller ready for service Resaca, and thence to succeeding positions until Atlanta was reached. Direct assaults on entrenchments nearly always failed with heavy loss. By this time it was thoroughly understood that the function of breastworks, whether of earth, logs, rails, or other material, was to give the advantage to the defense, and consequently everyone recognized that good troops behind such protection could hold off three or four times their number of equally good troops making the assault. This was the proporti
Chattanooga (Tennessee, United States) (search for this): chapter 11
t's and Banks' campaigns, by larger garrisons, pushed in from the field. All of these stronger places had to be taken by the process of regular siege. When Bragg retired from Murfreesboro, he entrenched several lines between that place and Chattanooga, but Rosecrans, by consummate strategic skill, turned him out of all of them without fighting serious battles. On the battlefield of Chickamauga, the infantry and artillery of Thomas' wing of the Federal army stood like a rock behind entrenchearth is loose. Gabions are also useful for revetments from their perpendicularity; through sand-bags, a foot or two might be added to their height. in the open, was repulsed, but later sat down behind entrenchments in front of Rosecrans at Chattanooga, and almost starved out the Federal army before it could be relieved. Grant attacked Bragg to drive him off. Hooker was successful at Lookout Mountain, but Sherman did not make any headway against the right of the Confederate army, being ch
Chancellorsville (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 11
nd the works. Devices such as chevaux-de-frise, consisting of logs pierced by sharpened spokes, were sometimes resorted to, and palisades were constructed in the ditches of strong works. One historian has remarked that no clear conception of the remarkable campaign to Atlanta can be had unless the difficult character of the country and the formidable nature of these artificial defenses are remembered. Returning to the armies of the Potomac and of Northern Virginia, we find that, at Chancellorsville, Hooker lost precious time by stopping, after attaining Lee's flank, and entrenching, instead of making an immediate attack; and another entrenched line — this time of value — was taken up after Howard Engineers. For its murderous artillery fire every dawn and dusk during the nine months siege of Petersburg, Union Fort Sedgwick was named by the Confederates Fort Hell. It was located some three miles south of Fort McGilvery on the southern end of the inner line of Federal ent
Fort Sedgwick (Colorado, United States) (search for this): chapter 11
dawn and dusk during the nine months siege of Petersburg, Union Fort Sedgwick was named by the Confederates Fort Hell. It was located some tat the increasing faith in hasty field-works was not ill Fort Sedgwick. Although the Union Fort Sedgwick before Petersburg was not asFort Sedgwick before Petersburg was not as elaborate a piece of engineering as the bastioned Forts Wadsworth and Dushane, which commanded the Weldon Railroad, it was nevertheless an eberty. Below is another section of the gabion entrenchments of Fort Sedgwick, heightened by sandbags. These fortifications, very effective orms had done more damage than the tons of Federal shells. Fort Sedgwick, where the garrison held its ground Sedgwick — gabions heightoldiers besieging Petersburg In these bomb-proof quarters of Fort Sedgwick, and many others, the Federals sought protection. When the art the underground huts. The distance between the main lines, at Fort Sedgwick, was about fifteen hundred feet, and between the pickets only t
Gettysburg (Pennsylvania, United States) (search for this): chapter 11
t in this campaign secured General Woodbury the rank of colonel in the United States Army. At Fredericksburg similar service connected with the work of the pontoon trains brought for him the rank of brigadier-general. He was brevetted major-general August 15, 1864. Fighting with sharpened sticks — primitive but effective protection Major-General D. P. Woodbury: the engineer who built the pontoon bridges at Fredericksburg had been driven in by Jackson's flank march and attack. At Gettysburg, the Army of the Potomac made no concerted effort to entrench, but relied largely on natural obstacles. But a decided change in the record of events commenced when the final campaign started from the Rapidan under Grant, in 1864. We already have noted how, in the Western armies, the art of entrenching had been highly developed. Not to be outdone by their Western comrades, the great armies operating in Virginia now got down and systematically dug dirt. Each force hugged the ground wit
Mobile, Ala. (Alabama, United States) (search for this): chapter 11
ainst rifle fire. If logs or other heavy timber were at hand, the thickness of the parapet could be correspondingly reduced. It was found that even a slight work, if held by strong rifle fire, always prevailed against the advancing force, unless the latter attacked in overwhelming numbers. Of the stronger fortifications on each side, those exemplifying the best types were the defenses of Washington, of Richmond and Petersburg, of Vicksburg, Port Hudson, and New Orleans, and the works at Mobile, Fort Fisher, Fort Pulaski, Burrows of Grant's soldiers besieging Petersburg In these bomb-proof quarters of Fort Sedgwick, and many others, the Federals sought protection. When the artillery fire was not making it Fort Hell in fact as well as in name, the bullets of the Confederate sharpshooters were singing over the salient and the breastworks. A cap on a stick thrust above the breastworks was invariably carried away. Many a man taking a hasty glance over the parapet to note the e
Fort Fisher (North Carolina, United States) (search for this): chapter 11
fire. If logs or other heavy timber were at hand, the thickness of the parapet could be correspondingly reduced. It was found that even a slight work, if held by strong rifle fire, always prevailed against the advancing force, unless the latter attacked in overwhelming numbers. Of the stronger fortifications on each side, those exemplifying the best types were the defenses of Washington, of Richmond and Petersburg, of Vicksburg, Port Hudson, and New Orleans, and the works at Mobile, Fort Fisher, Fort Pulaski, Burrows of Grant's soldiers besieging Petersburg In these bomb-proof quarters of Fort Sedgwick, and many others, the Federals sought protection. When the artillery fire was not making it Fort Hell in fact as well as in name, the bullets of the Confederate sharpshooters were singing over the salient and the breastworks. A cap on a stick thrust above the breastworks was invariably carried away. Many a man taking a hasty glance over the parapet to note the effect of h
Dalton, Ga. (Georgia, United States) (search for this): chapter 11
the men had gone beyond the foot of the mountain, to which Thomas is said to have replied, By their own, I think. Grant's rejoinder was: If they succeed, all right. But if they don't, some one will suffer for this. The works at the top were heavy; but Thomas' troops succeeded, and no one suffered except the gallant men of both sides who fell. Grant went East, turning over the command of the Western Federal armies to Sherman, who prepared to attack Johnston, entrenched around Dalton, in northern Georgia. Buzzard's Roost formed the strongest portion of Johnston's line, which consisted of heavy fortifications on the heights, in front of which lighter lines had been placed. Sherman felt this position, found it almost impregnable, made a flank movement, and turned Johnston out of his stronghold. In the retaining attack on the works, the Federal troops took a portion of the lower lines of entrenchments, but found the upper works too strong. The turning movement having succeeded, t
Atlanta (Georgia, United States) (search for this): chapter 11
rate ditches and embankments, and palisades constructed in the works all about Atlanta. Historians have declared that no clear conception of Sherman's remarkable campaign to Atlanta can be had unless the difficult character of the country and the formikleble nature of these artificial defenses are remembered. Practically every foot of the way from Ringgold to Atlanta was entrenched. McClellan's army was delayed a month before the Confederates evacuated. The preliminary reconnaissavelous celerity. The Typical head-log with skids — Sherman's defense before Atlanta If a shell drove back one of the head-logs in this photograph, it might crusap-roller ready for service Resaca, and thence to succeeding positions until Atlanta was reached. Direct assaults on entrenchments nearly always failed with heavy historian has remarked that no clear conception of the remarkable campaign to Atlanta can be had unless the difficult character of the country and the formidable na
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