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Browsing named entities in a specific section of The Photographic History of The Civil War: in ten volumes, Thousands of Scenes Photographed 1861-65, with Text by many Special Authorities, Volume 7: Prisons and Hospitals. (ed. Francis Trevelyan Miller). Search the whole document.

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John E. Wool (search for this): chapter 1.4
received their own men in return. In the East, General Benjamin Huger, the Confederate commander at Norfolk, and General John E. Wool, U. S. A., made a number of special exchanges. As the number of prisoners grew, much of the time of the commandin, conscious of their deficient resources, were eager to escape the care of prisoners, and welcomed the announcement of General Wool, February 13, 1862, that he had been empowered to arrange a general exchange. General Wool met General Howell Cobb, oGeneral Wool met General Howell Cobb, on February 23d, and an agreement, except upon the point of delivery at the frontier of their own country, was reached for the delivery of all prisoners, the excess to be on parole. At a subsequent meeting, General Wool announced that his instructioGeneral Wool announced that his instructions had been changed and that he could exchange man for man only. This offer was refused by General Cobb, who charged that the reason for the unwillingness to complete the agreement was the capture of Forts Henry and Donelson, which gave the Federal
N. G. Watts (search for this): chapter 1.4
capacity to the end of the war. Under the supervision of these men and with the aid of General John A. Dix, the prisoners in the East were exchanged. Prisoners in the West were sent to Vicksburg, where the first exchanges were conducted by Major N. G. Watts, C. S. A., and Captain H. M. Lazelle, U. S. A. The Confederates maintained that they held, for the greater part of the time before the cartel was signed, several times as many prisoners as were held in the North. The excess was consider In spite of the suspension of the cartel, exchanges went on in the East by special agreements for more than a year longer. In the West, many thousands were exchanged by Colonel C. C. Dwight, on the part of the United States, and Lieutenant-Colonel N. G. Watts and Major Ignatius Szymanski, on the part of the Confederacy. Generals Sherman and Hood also exchanged some prisoners afterward taken by their respective commands, and other special agreements between commanders in the field were mad
W. H. L. Wallace (search for this): chapter 1.4
he contracting parties. If the terms of a cartel are violated by one belligerent they cease to be obligatory upon the other. George B. Davis, in Outlines of international law. Though prisoners taken in Texas, Missouri, Virginia, and elsewhere had been paroled early in the war, their exchange was not completed until much later. The first instance of formal exchange, apparently, is that in Missouri, when four officers of General G. J. Pillow's command met four of the command of Colonel W. H. L. Wallace, and exchanged six privates, three on each side. The Federal Government was anxious to avoid in any way a recognition of the Confederate government , and therefore whatever exchanges followed these for several months were made by the commanding officers on both sides, unofficially, though with the knowledge and tacit consent of the Government at Washington. The first person who officially realized the fact that the whole question of prisoners and prisons was likely to be importa
Lew Wallace (search for this): chapter 1.4
he arrangements for exchange Colonel C. C. Dwight, of New York, was the Federal agent of exchange in the West. General Lew Wallace, the author of Ben Hur and A Prince of India, was the officer assigned to take command of Camp Chase in Ohio, whermporarily detached from his position as adjutant-general to act as agent in the East. Colonel C. C. Dwight General Lew Wallace General E. A. Hitchcock General Lorenzo Thomas The cause of this strong language was the order issued bty was forbidden by their parole. In the West, many of the paroled prisoners were sent to Camp Chase, in Ohio. General Lew Wallace, who found three thousand paroled Union soldiers when he took command of the post, reported that there had never bf exchange, be sent to Minnesota to fight the Indians, and Secretary Stanton immediately approved the suggestion. General Wallace says, however, that very few were willing to go. In order to bring some sort of order out of chaos, he determined to
abandoned the men and left them to shift for themselves. The consequences can be easily imagined. The soldiers became lousy and ragged, despairing and totally demoralized. Secretary Stanton, in an interesting telegraphic correspondence with Governor Tod, of Ohio, on September 9, 1862, stated he believed there is reason to fear that many voluntarily surrender for the sake of getting home. I have sent fifteen hundred to Camp Chase and wish to have them kept in close quarters and drilled diligently every day, with no leave of absence. Governor Tod, the same day, suggested that these paroled prisoners awaiting a declaration of exchange, be sent to Minnesota to fight the Indians, and Secretary Stanton immediately approved the suggestion. General Wallace says, however, that very few were willing to go. In order to bring some sort of order out of chaos, he determined to organize new regiments and refused to pay or to provide clothes for any man who had not enrolled himself in one of t
Jefferson Thompson (search for this): chapter 1.4
ere specified places, such as Cox's Landing and City Point, where these transfers took place. Grant's later policy was to allow as few as possible. A glance at this hardy band of captured Confederate veterans here tells the reason why. There are a hundred fights in these men yet. Why let them return to the firing-line to combat Union soldiers anew? The only reason was to release Union prisoners from confinement and hasten their return to duty. number of prisoners to Generals Polk and Jeff. Thompson and received their own men in return. In the East, General Benjamin Huger, the Confederate commander at Norfolk, and General John E. Wool, U. S. A., made a number of special exchanges. As the number of prisoners grew, much of the time of the commanding officers was required for this business. A large amount of political pressure was brought to bear upon the officials at Washington, urging them to arrange for an exchange, and on December 3, 1861, General Halleck wrote that the prisoner
Holland Thompson (search for this): chapter 1.4
Exchange of prisoners Holland Thompson At cox's landing waiting for the flag-of-truce boat The exchange of prisoners between belligerents is made in accordance with agreements, entered into for that purpose, called cartels. The making of such agreements is purely voluntary, and cannot be constrained by subjecting prisoners to special hardships. . . . The binding force of cartels, like that of all other agreements between belligerents, rests upon the good faith of the contracting parties. If the terms of a cartel are violated by one belligerent they cease to be obligatory upon the other. George B. Davis, in Outlines of international law. Though prisoners taken in Texas, Missouri, Virginia, and elsewhere had been paroled early in the war, their exchange was not completed until much later. The first instance of formal exchange, apparently, is that in Missouri, when four officers of General G. J. Pillow's command met four of the command of Colonel W. H. L. Wallac
Lorenzo Thomas (search for this): chapter 1.4
greed to appoint two agents, one in the East and one in the West, to carry out the stipulations of the contract. General Lorenzo Thomas was temporarily detached from his position as adjutant-general to The active Federal exchange agent Brigadier-ange of prisoners of war or their disposition otherwise absolutely necessary. After exchanges were well under way, General Thomas returned to Washington and a volunteer officer, Lieutenant-Colonel William H. Ludlow, was appointed agent for exchangneral E. A. Hitchcock was the Federal commissioner of exchange in the East. It was due largely to the efforts of General Lorenzo Thomas that exchange arrangements were perfected. He was temporarily detached from his position as adjutant-general to act as agent in the East. Colonel C. C. Dwight General Lew Wallace General E. A. Hitchcock General Lorenzo Thomas The cause of this strong language was the order issued by Secretary Stanton, on July 22d, which, as interpreted by Pr
Onondaga, N. Y. (New York, United States) (search for this): chapter 1.4
occasionally steamed as far up the river as this point. The queer-looking craft in the center of the river is the double-turreted monitor Onondaga. It was no longer safe for women and children to stay in A. M. Aiken's dwelling on the hill; shells from the warship might come hurtling ashore at the slightest sign of Confederates. After the success of the first monitor, several other ironclads were built after the same pattern. They were suitable for river service and harbor defense. The Onondaga rendered valuable aid to the army while Grant centered his operations against Richmond at City Point. In spite of the suspension of the cartel, exchanges went on in the East by special agreements for more than a year longer. In the West, many thousands were exchanged by Colonel C. C. Dwight, on the part of the United States, and Lieutenant-Colonel N. G. Watts and Major Ignatius Szymanski, on the part of the Confederacy. Generals Sherman and Hood also exchanged some prisoners afterward
Fort Donelson (Tennessee, United States) (search for this): chapter 1.4
announced that his instructions had been changed and that he could exchange man for man only. This offer was refused by General Cobb, who charged that the reason for the unwillingness to complete the agreement was the capture of Forts Henry and Donelson, which gave the Federal Government an excess of prisoners which it was unwilling to release on parole. As the next move on the chess-board, the Confederate Government refused longer to make individual exchanges on the ground that, as politica, U. S. A. The Confederates maintained that they held, for the greater part of the time before the cartel was signed, several times as many prisoners as were held in the North. The excess was considerable until the capture of Forts Henry and Donelson, and the difficulty of feeding and guarding these prisoners was one of the reasons for their anxiety to arrange a plan of exchange. As early as June 17, 1862, the quartermaster-general of the Confederacy wrote that it was almost impossible to f
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