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Baltimore, Md. (Maryland, United States) (search for this): entry electricity-in-the-nineteenth-century
ectro-magnet of soft iron. The history of the electric telegraph teaches us that to no single individual is the invention due. The Morse system had been demonstrated in 1837, but not until 1844 was the first telegraph line built. It connected Baltimore and Washington, and the funds for defraying its cost were only obtained from Congress after a severe struggle. The success of the Morse telegraph was soon followed by the establishment of telegraph lines as a means of communication between all lines, using similar plans, have gone into operation in recent years. The three largest and most powerful electric locomotives ever put into service are those which are employed to take trains through the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad tunnel at Baltimore. They have been in service about seven or eight years, and are fully equal in power to the large steam locomotives used on steam roads. There was opened, in London, in 1900, the Central Underground, equipped with twenty-six electric locomot
Geneva, N. Y. (New York, United States) (search for this): entry electricity-in-the-nineteenth-century
enomenon of the electric arc, by first closing the circuit of the battery through terminals of hardwood charcoal and then separating them for a short distance. A magnificent arch of flame was maintained between the separated ends, and the light from the charcoal pieces was of dazzling splendor. Thus was born into the world the electric are light, of which there are now many hundreds of thousands burning nightly in our own country alone. As early as 1774 attempts were made by Le Sage, of Geneva, to apply frictional electricity to telegraphy. It was easy enough to stop and start a current in a line of wire connecting two points, but something more than that was requisite. A good receiver, or means for recognizing the presence or absence of current in the wire or circuit, did not exist. The art had to wait for the discovery of the effects of electric current upon magnets and the production of magnetism by such currents. Curiously, even in 1802 the fact that a wire conveying a cu
New Britain (Connecticut, United States) (search for this): entry electricity-in-the-nineteenth-century
the capabilities of third-rail electric traction on the Intramural Elevated Railway, and the system is rapidly extending so as to include all elevated city roads. A few years will doubtless see the great change accomplished. The motor-car, or car propelled by its own motors, has also been introduced upon standard steam roads to a limited extent as a supplement to steam traction. The earliest of these installations are the one at Nantasket, Mass., and that between Hartford and New Britain, in Connecticut. A number of special high-speed lines, using similar plans, have gone into operation in recent years. The three largest and most powerful electric locomotives ever put into service are those which are employed to take trains through the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad tunnel at Baltimore. They have been in service about seven or eight years, and are fully equal in power to the large steam locomotives used on steam roads. There was opened, in London, in 1900, the Central Undergro
ho described in a British patent specification a lamp in which electric current passed through a thin strip of carbon kept it heated while surrounded by a glass bulb in which a vacuum was maintained. Starr had exhibited his lamps to Faraday, in England, and was preparing to construct dynamos to furnish electric current for them in place of batteries, but sudden death put an end to his labors. The Edison lamp differed from those which preceded it in the extremely small section of the carbon way lines virtually disappeared. While the United States and Canada have been and still are the theatre of the enormous advance in electric traction, as in other electric work, many electric car lines have in recent years been established in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe. Countries like Japan, Australia, South Africa, and South America have also in operation many electric trolley lines, and the work is rapidly extending. Most of this work, even in Europe, has been carried out
While the United States and Canada have been and still are the theatre of the enormous advance in electric traction, as in other electric work, many electric car lines have in recent years been established in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe. Countries like Japan, Australia, South Africa, and South America have also in operation many electric trolley lines, and the work is rapidly extending. Most of this work, even in Europe, has been carried out either by importation of equipment Europe, has been carried out either by importation of equipment from America, or by apparatus manufactured there, but following American practice closely. In Chicago the application of motorcars in trains upon the elevated railway followed directly upon the practical demonstration at the World's Fair of the capabilities of third-rail electric traction on the Intramural Elevated Railway, and the system is rapidly extending so as to include all elevated city roads. A few years will doubtless see the great change accomplished. The motor-car, or car prope
nt, compact, and durable continuous-current dynamo. It was in a sense the culmination of many years of development, beginning with the early attempts immediately following Faraday's discovery, already referred to. In 1872 Von Hefner Alteneck, in Berlin, modified the ring winding of Gramme and produced the drum winding, which avoided the necessity for threading wire through the centre of the iron ring as in the Gramme construction. At the Centennial Exhibition, held at Philadelphia in 1876, bis complete. The period which has elapsed since the first introduction of electric railways is barely a dozen years. It is true that a few tentative experiments in electric traction were made some time in advance of 1888, notably by Siemens, in Berlin, in 1879 and 1880, by Stephen D. Field, by T. A. Edison, at Menlo Park, by J. C. Henry, by Charles A. Van Depoele, and others. Farmer, in 1847, tried to propel railway cars by electric motors driven by currents from batteries carried on the cars
g which was the Westinghouse Company, also entered the field and became prominent factors in railway extension. In a few years horse traction in the United States on tramway lines virtually disappeared. While the United States and Canada have been and still are the theatre of the enormous advance in electric traction, as in other electric work, many electric car lines have in recent years been established in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe. Countries like Japan, Australia, South Africa, and South America have also in operation many electric trolley lines, and the work is rapidly extending. Most of this work, even in Europe, has been carried out either by importation of equipment from America, or by apparatus manufactured there, but following American practice closely. In Chicago the application of motorcars in trains upon the elevated railway followed directly upon the practical demonstration at the World's Fair of the capabilities of third-rail electric traction on
facturers, chief among which was the Westinghouse Company, also entered the field and became prominent factors in railway extension. In a few years horse traction in the United States on tramway lines virtually disappeared. While the United States and Canada have been and still are the theatre of the enormous advance in electric traction, as in other electric work, many electric car lines have in recent years been established in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe. Countries like Japan, Australia, South Africa, and South America have also in operation many electric trolley lines, and the work is rapidly extending. Most of this work, even in Europe, has been carried out either by importation of equipment from America, or by apparatus manufactured there, but following American practice closely. In Chicago the application of motorcars in trains upon the elevated railway followed directly upon the practical demonstration at the World's Fair of the capabilities of third-rai
between Hartford and New Britain, in Connecticut. A number of special high-speed lines, using similar plans, have gone into operation in recent years. The three largest and most powerful electric locomotives ever put into service are those which are employed to take trains through the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad tunnel at Baltimore. They have been in service about seven or eight years, and are fully equal in power to the large steam locomotives used on steam roads. There was opened, in London, in 1900, the Central Underground, equipped with twenty-six electric locomotives for drawing its trains. The electric and power equipment was manufactured in America to suit the needs of the road. The alternating current transformer not only greatly extended the radius of supply from a single station, but also enabled the station to be conveniently located where water and coal could be had without difficulty. It also permitted the distant water-powers to become sources of electric energ
America (Illinois, United States) (search for this): entry electricity-in-the-nineteenth-century
ually abandoned, after having served a great purpose in directing the attention of the world to the possibilities of the electric arc in lighting. Inventors in America were not idle. By the close of 1878, Brush, of Cleveland, had brought out his series system of arc lights, including special dynamos, lamps, etc., and by the midn many electric trolley lines, and the work is rapidly extending. Most of this work, even in Europe, has been carried out either by importation of equipment from America, or by apparatus manufactured there, but following American practice closely. In Chicago the application of motorcars in trains upon the elevated railway follodon, in 1900, the Central Underground, equipped with twenty-six electric locomotives for drawing its trains. The electric and power equipment was manufactured in America to suit the needs of the road. The alternating current transformer not only greatly extended the radius of supply from a single station, but also enabled the s
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