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n any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free; and the Executive Government of the United States, including the military and naval authority thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of such persons, and will do no act or acts to repress such persons, or any of them, in any efforts they may make for their actual freedom. That the Executive will, on the first day of January aforesaid, by proclamation, designate the States and parts of States, if any, in which the people thereof, respectively, shall then be in rebellion against the United States; and the fact that any State, or the people thereof, shall on that day be in good faith represented in the Congress of the United States, by members chosen thereto at elections wherein a majority of the qualified voters of such State shall have participated, shall, in the absence of strong countervailing testimony, be d
vernments existing there, will be continued. That on the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixtor their actual freedom. That the Executive will, on the first day of January aforesaid, by proclamation, designate the States and parts o among other things, the following to wit: That on the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixtfor their actual freedom. That the Executive will, on the first day of January aforesaid, by proclamation, designate the States and parts osary war measure for suppressing said rebellion, do, on this first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixt Fac-simile of the emancipation proclamation That on the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixtbe affixed. [L. S.] Done at the City of Washington, this first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixt
her premature. He accordingly wrote to General Fremont requesting him to modify his proclamation. The general replied with a request that the President himself would make the necessary modifications. President Lincoln therefore issued a special order, Sept. 11, 1861, declaring that the emancipation clause of General Fremont's proclamation be so modified, held, and construed as to conform with and not to transcend the provisions on the same subject contained in the act of Congress approved Aug. 6, preceding. Another instance of the kind occurred at the hands of General Hunter, the following year. That officer, being in command at Hilton Head, N. C., proclaimed the States of Georgia, Florida, and South Carolina, in his department, under martial law, and May 9, 1862, issued an order in which occurred these words: Slavery and martial law in a free country are altogether incompatible. The persons in these States—Georgia, Florida, and South Carolina—heretofore held as slaves are th
thheld his sanction from the premature attempts to secure it. On July 16, 1862, Congress passed an act for the suppression of slavery, one provision of which declared the absolute freedom of the slaves of rebels under certain operations of war therein defined. This gave the President a wide field for the exercise of executive power, but he used it with great prudence. The patient Lincoln hoped the wise men among the Confederates might heed the threat contained in the act. Finally, in September, he issued the following warning proclamation: Proclamation. I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States of America, and Commanderin-chief of the Army and Navy thereof, do hereby proclaim and declare that hereafter, as heretofore, the war will be prosecuted for the object of practically restoring the constitutional relation between the United States and each of the States, and the people thereof, in which States that relation is or may be suspended or disturbed. That it is
e compensated for all losses by acts of the United States, including the loss of slaves. In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed. Done at the city of Washington, this twenty-second day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-two, and of the Independence of the United States the eighty-seventh. Abraham Lincoln. By the President: William H. Seward, Secretary of State. This warning was unheeded, and on the day mentioned the President issued the following proclamation: Proclamation. Whereas, On the 22d day of September; in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-two, a proclamation was issued by the President of the United States, containing, among other things, the following to wit: That on the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part o
rst proclamation freeing the slaves. That officer never issued such a proclamation, but he was the first to suggest to the government a partial solution of the very perplexing question as to what was to be done with the slaves during the Civil War. It was held that the Constitution of the United States did not give to Congress, or to the non-slave-holding States, any right to interfere with the institution of slavery. This was reaffirmed by Congress in a resolution passed by the House, Feb. 11, 1861, without a dissenting voice, to reassure the South that, in spite of the election of Mr. Lincoln, the North had no intention of usurping power not granted by the Constitution. But when, after the outbreak of the war, the army began to occupy posts in the seceding and slave-holding States, the negroes came flocking into the Union lines, large numbers being set free by the disorganized condition of affairs from the usual labor on the farms and plantations of the South. Then the question
f war, subject to seizure. He set the ablebodied men to work upon government fortifications, and when they brought their women and children with them he issued rations to them and charged them to the service of the men. The President sustained General Butler's action in this case and the example was followed by other commanders. The government ordered strict accounts to be kept of the labor thus performed, as it was not yet determined that these laborers should be regarded as free. On Aug. 6, 1861, the President signed an act passed by Congress which declared that when any slave was employed in any military or naval service against the government the person by whom his labor was claimed, that is, his owner, should forfeit all claims to such labor. The intent at the time this bill was passed was that it should be in force only tentatively, for few were then able to see what proportions the war would assume and what other measures would be found necessary to end it. General Fremont,
t the government the person by whom his labor was claimed, that is, his owner, should forfeit all claims to such labor. The intent at the time this bill was passed was that it should be in force only tentatively, for few were then able to see what proportions the war would assume and what other measures would be found necessary to end it. General Fremont, then in command of the Western Department of the army, chose to assume that the confiscation act of Congress had unlimited scope, and Aug. 31, 1861, issued a proclamation confiscating the property and freeing the slaves of all citizens of Missouri who had taken, or should take, up arms against the government. This action of Fremont embarrassed President Lincoln greatly. For whatever may have been his hope that the outcome of the war would be the final abolition of slavery, he could not fail to see that to permit the generals of the army to take such a course then in this matter was rather premature. He accordingly wrote to Genera
Lincoln greatly. For whatever may have been his hope that the outcome of the war would be the final abolition of slavery, he could not fail to see that to permit the generals of the army to take such a course then in this matter was rather premature. He accordingly wrote to General Fremont requesting him to modify his proclamation. The general replied with a request that the President himself would make the necessary modifications. President Lincoln therefore issued a special order, Sept. 11, 1861, declaring that the emancipation clause of General Fremont's proclamation be so modified, held, and construed as to conform with and not to transcend the provisions on the same subject contained in the act of Congress approved Aug. 6, preceding. Another instance of the kind occurred at the hands of General Hunter, the following year. That officer, being in command at Hilton Head, N. C., proclaimed the States of Georgia, Florida, and South Carolina, in his department, under martial
d States, including the loss of slaves. In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed. Done at the city of Washington, this twenty-second day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-two, and of the Independence of the United States the eighty-seventh. Abraham Lincoln. By the President: William H. Seward, Secretary of State. This warning was unheeded, and on the day mentioned the President issued the following proclamation: Proclamation. Whereas, On the 22d day of September; in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-two, a proclamation was issued by the President of the United States, containing, among other things, the following to wit: That on the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in re
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