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the government of an absolute monarch, they have no reason to complain that one enjoys the liberty the other is deprived of. The French colonies will be found nearly in the same condition, and for the same reason, because their fellow-subjects of France have always lost their liberty. And the question is whether all colonies, as compared with one another, enjoy equal liberty, or whether all enjoy as much freedom as the inhabitants of the mother state; and this will hardly be denied in the case e not only planted, but also defended against the savages and other enemies in long and cruel wars which continued for 100 years, almost without intermission, solely at their own charge; and in the year 1746, when the Duke d'anville came out from France with the most formidable fleet that ever was in the American seas, enraged at these colonies for the loss of Louisburg the year before, and with orders to make an attack on them; even in this greatest exigence these colonies were left to the prot
America (Netherlands) (search for this): entry hopkins-stephen
lonies planted in the three last centuries in America from several kingdoms in Europe, we shall fin will any one suppose the British colonies of America are an exception to this general rule? Colonn years or more, in his Majesty's colonies in America, might, on the conditions therein mentioned, r beyond a doubt that the British subjects in America have equal rights with those in Britain; thatmong the British subjects on the continent of America. How much reason there is for it, we will en the foreign molasses trade the codfishing in America must also be lost and thrown also into the hato receive great quantities of flax-seed from America, many cargoes being made of that, and barrel- more reason, alarmed the British subjects in America than anything that had ever been done before.ne at another. And, indeed, if the people in America are to be taxed by the representatives of theher-country for the defence and protection of America, and especially during the late war, must ju
London (United Kingdom) (search for this): entry hopkins-stephen
of Brown University. Notwithstanding his defective early education, his knowledge of literature, science, and political economy was varied and extensive. He died in Providence, July 13, 1785. Grievances of the American colonies. Under date of July 30, 1764, he issued the following statement in the form of a pamphlet bearing the full title of The grievances of the American colonies candidly examined. The pamphlet was printed by order of the General Assembly in 1765, and reissued in London in the following year: Liberty is the greatest blessing that man can enjoy, and slavery the greatest curse that human nature is capable of. Hence it is a matter of the utmost importance to men which of the two shall be their portion. Absolute liberty is, perhaps, incompatible with any kind of government. The safety resulting from society, and the advantages of just and equal laws, hath caused men to forego some part of their natural liberty, and submit to government. This appears to
Scituate (Massachusetts, United States) (search for this): entry hopkins-stephen
Hopkins, Stephen 1707-1785 Signer of the Declaration of Independence; born in Scituate, R. I., March 7, 1707; was engaged in early life in mercantile business and land surveying; became an active member of the Rhode Island legislature, and was speaker of the Assembly from 1732 till 1741. In 1739 he was chief-justice of the Court of Common Pleas, and of the Supreme Court from 1751 to 1754. Mr. Hopkins was a delegate in the colonial convention at Albany in 1754, and one of the committee who drew up a plan of union. From 1754 to 1768 he was governor of Rhode Island, excepting four years. He was a member of the first Continental Congress, and remained in that body from 1776 to 1778. He had been from the beginning a stanch opposer of the oppressive measures of Parliament. He was one of the committee that drafted the Articles of Confederation (see Confederation, articles of); was a superior mathematician; and was for many years chancellor of Brown University. Notwithstanding his d
Georgia (Georgia, United States) (search for this): entry hopkins-stephen
, without reason or contrary to law, the informer or seizer was left to the justice of the common law, there to pay for his folly or suffer for his temerity. But now this case is quite altered, and a custom-house officer may make a seizure in Georgia of goods ever so legally imported, and carry the trial to Halifax, at 1,500 miles' distance, and thither the owner must follow him to defend his property; and when he comes there, quite beyond the circle of his friends, acquaintance, and correspt is very well known may too easily be done) to certify there was only probable cause for making the seizure, the unhappy owner may not maintain any action against the illegal seizure for damages, or obtain any satisfaction; but he may return to Georgia quite ruined and undone, in conformity to an act of Parliament. Such unbounded encouragement and protection given to informers must call to every one's remembrance Tacitus's account of the miserable condition of the Romans in the reign of Tiber
s in them? These are certainly the effects this act must produce. The duty of 3d. per gallon on foreign molasses is well known to every man in the least acquainted with it to be much higher than that article can possibly bear, and therefore must operate as an absolute prohibition. This will put a total stop to the exportation of lumber, horses, flour, and fish to the French and Dutch sugarcolonies; and if any one supposes we may find a sufficient sale for these articles in the English West Indies, he verifies what was just now observed, that he wants true information. Putting an end to the importation of foreign molasses at the same time puts an end to all the costly distilleries in these colonies and to the rum trade with the coast of Africa, and throws it into the hands of the French. With the loss of the foreign molasses trade the codfishing in America must also be lost and thrown also into the hands of the French. That this is the real state of the whole business is not mer
all belong to Great Britain, and not the least share or portion to these colonies, though thousands of their numbers have lost their lives, and millions of their money have been expended in the purchase of them—for great part of which we are yet in debt, and from which we shall not in many years be able to extricate ourselves. Hard will be the fate, and cruel the destiny of these unhappy colonies, if the reward they are to receive for all this is the loss of their freedom; better for them Canada still remained French, yea, far more eligible that it should remain so, than that the price of its reduction should be their slavery. If the colonies are not taxed by Parliament, are they therefore exempt from bearing their proper shares in the necessary burdens of government? This by no means follows. Do they not support a regular internal government in each colony as expensive to the people here as the internal government of Britain is to the people there? Have not the colonies here
New England (United States) (search for this): entry hopkins-stephen
ges and freedoms as their fellow-subjects in Great Britain are, is a point worthy mature examination. In discussing this question we shall make the colonies of New England, with whose rights we are best acquainted, the rule of our reasoning; not in the least doubting all the others are justly entitled to like rights with them. New England was first planted by adventurers, who left England, their native country, by permission of King Charles I., and at their own expense transported themselves to America, and, with great risk and difficulty, settled among the savages, and, in a very surprising manner, formed new colonies in the wilderness. Before their deghtfully vest the Parliament with the power of taxing the colonies we shall find this claim to have no foundation. In many of the colonies, especially those in New England, which were planted, as is before observed, not at the charge of the crown or kingdom of England, but at the expense of the planters themselves, and were not on
Connecticut (Connecticut, United States) (search for this): entry hopkins-stephen
ould stand in to their mother country were fully settled. They were to remain subject to the King and dependent on the kingdom of Great Britain. In return they were to receive protection and enjoy all the rights and privileges of free-born Englishmen. This is abundantly proved by the charter given to the Massachusetts colony while they were still in England, and which they received and brought over with them as an authentic evidence of the condition they removed upon. The colonies of Connecticut and Rhode Island also afterwards obtained charters from the crown granting like ample privileges. By all these charters it is in the most express and solemn manner granted that these adventurers, and their children after them forever, should have and enjoy all the freedom and liberty that the subjects in England enjoy. That they might make laws for their government, suitable to their circumstances, not repugnant to, but as near as might be agreeable to, the laws of England; that they mi
Halifax (United Kingdom) (search for this): entry hopkins-stephen
be brought before these courts for trial in the manner it ought to be done, and in a way only moderately expensive to the subjects; and if seizures were made, or informations exhibited, without reason or contrary to law, the informer or seizer was left to the justice of the common law, there to pay for his folly or suffer for his temerity. But now this case is quite altered, and a custom-house officer may make a seizure in Georgia of goods ever so legally imported, and carry the trial to Halifax, at 1,500 miles' distance, and thither the owner must follow him to defend his property; and when he comes there, quite beyond the circle of his friends, acquaintance, and correspondence, among total strangers, he must there give bond, and must find sureties to be bound with him in a large sum before he shall be admitted to claim his own goods; when this is complied with, he hath a trial and his goods acquitted. If the judge can be prevailed upon (which it is very well known may too easily
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