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had been attained. A bar of phosphor bronze, under a strain of 10 tons, resisted 862,980 bends, while the best gunmetal broke after 102,650 bends. Another bar, tested under a strain of 9 tons, has resisted 1,260,000 bends without breaking. In Austria the following comparative results have been obtained: — Absolute Resistance. Phosphor bronze81,798 pounds per square inch. Krupp cast-steel72,258 pounds per square inch. Ordnance bronze31,792 pounds per square inch. The best English m the foregoing and those shown in the next figure, and a comparison of others for which we have no room here, it appears that the ancient Egyptian, Etruscan, Syrian, and Greek plows were equal to the modern plows of the South of France, part of Austria, Poland, Sweden, Spain, Turkey, Persia, Arabia, India, Ceylon, and China. The last thirty years may have worked a partial change, but not sufficient to invalidate the general truth of the statement. The ancient Etruscan plow, for instance, wa
n Bavaria, resemble gas-retorts. In the quicksilver works of New Almaden, in California, the ore is roasted in closed chambers with luted covers. At Idria, in Austria, the mode is a true furnace process, the ore being above the fire, the volatile results, both of combustion and sublimation, being conducted to condensing-chamber are made deeper on one side than on the other, as shown in Fig. 4328, a; the deeper part is of uniform depth and connected with the shallower during the Franco-Austrian war in Italy, 1859. The Lancaster gun had, however, been tried to some extent during the Crimean war. They may be divided into four classes:— 1. Guns in w the grooves of gradually decreasing depth from one side to the other (d). The French system, of which the Woolwich is a modification, is shown at c. The Austrian (f) in principle resembles this, the grooves being a series of spiral triangles; the projectile (g) has corresponding soft-metal ribs, which readily pass down th
on a spindle c, having an elastic bearing, which permits it to oscillate at the commencement of its rotation until it assumes a perpendicular position by the even distribution of the pulp in the basket. Centrifugal machine. The rotation of the basket by belting on the spindle assumes a great velocity, and the juice is expressed from the pulp, caught by the curb d, and flows to a conductor, by which it is conveyed to the defecating-pan. The diffusion process of Robert, an extensive Austrian beetroot sugar manufacturer, is a mode of extracting the saccharine liquid from the pulp, and is described and illustrated, page 702, Fig. 1652. The defecating-pan a contains a steam-heated coil of copper pipe. The juice is admitted through the pipe b, while carbonic acid, entering through c, is distributed throughout the juice by a perforated pipe. The defecated juice and scums are drawn off into the monte-jus d through the cock e. The monte-jus has a man-hole at top, and is supplied
ry bones are obtained from Thibet, where the bodies of the defunct are cut to pieces and thrown to the kites or into the water. The bone is perforated through both condyles. The trumpet of the Lamas of the Tartarian temples is a conch-shell, blown by turns toward the four cardinal points, — south and north, east and west. The south has the place of honor and precedence in statement in China. Maelzel's automaton flute-player was exhibited about 1800. It was dressed as a trumpeter of Austrian dragoons, and when wound up by a key, played several marches, gave the trumpetcalls of the Austrian and French cavalry, and several other pieces. The longest Anglo-Saxon trumpets were placed on a stand when blown. Specimens of the oliphant are still preserved. 2. (Music.) A stop of an organ having reed-pipes tuned in unison with open diapason. The octavetrumpet or clarion stop is an octave higher. See stop. 3. An ear-tube or conductor of sound. See acoustic instruments; ear-t
701.Bartlett, June 10, 1873. 142,571.Lang, Sept. 9, 1873. 145,976.Trotter, Dec. 30, 1873. See also white-lead. Zir-co′ni — a light. One in which a stick of oxide of zirconium is exposed to the flame of oxyhydrogen gas. Invented by Tessie du Motay. It is said to be entirely unaltered by the heat, and to develop more intense light than any other terrous oxide. Zir-co′ni-um. A rare metal obtained from the minerals zircon and hyacinth by Berzelius in 1824. Zith′ern. An Austrian musical instrument of the lute order. It has twenty-eight strings, lies on the table or in the lap, and is played by both hands. Zo′cle. 1. A low, plain, square member or plinth supporting a column. 2. A short pedestal; a footstool. Socle. Zo′e-trope. This mechanical toy, like the thaumatrope, which amused the preceding generation, depends for its interest upon the constancy of visual impressions. See also Anorthoscope; Phenakis-Toscope; Stroboscope; Rotascope; etc.
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