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and has made possible the construction of many works which could hardly otherwise have been attempted. In its invention we find credits to Clements of London, who was a workman in Bramah's shop; to Fox of Derby, and to Roberts and Rennie of Manchester. Bramah, it appears, employed, in 1811, the revolving cutter to plane iron, thus adapting to metal the form found best adapted to wood-working, and which survives in our milling-machines, now so much and deservedly esteemed. Clement, previous table is moved endways by a quickthreaded screw, which allows the driving motion to be placed at the end. Whitworth's English patent is No. 6850, of December 11, 1835. The key-grooving machine is a modification invented by Robert Roberts of Manchester. It has a strong mortise-chisel, which is reciprocated vertically by an eccentric, while the wheel to be slotted is laid horizontally on a slide, and traversed toward the cutter until the slot has attained the depth required. The milling-ma
erland, England. r, Berlin and Potsdam, Prussia. s, London and Blackwall, England. t, Manchester and Birmingham, England. u, Saint-Etienne to Lyon, France. v, Wilmington and Susquehannaeven a majority of experts were in favor of the use of stationary engines on the Liverpool and Manchester road, and it was not until after George Stephenson with his Rocket had practically demonstratee following figures of foreign rainfall:— London, England24.4 Liverpool, England34.5 Manchester, England36.2 Bath, England30.0 Truro, England44.0 Cambridge, England24.9 York, England23 Borrhine. The first application of steam to this purpose is due to Sir William Fairbairn, of Manchester, England. He employed a movable horizontal die, in conjunction with a fixed die at the head of anrods are secured with screw-bolts and nuts or gibs and keys. The roof of Smithfield Market, Manchester, is one of the simplest forms (21, Fig. 4423); its total width is 244 feet, covered by two out
to those containing several tons, and slung from a crane. Nasmyth, of Manchester, England, has added to the pivot of the large crane-ladle a tangent-screw and woually (barring accidents) arrive in London four days and a half after leaving Manchester. Three years later the Liverpool flying coach undertook to do the distance bng the post-office to use them. This revolutionized the whole business. The Manchester mail did its 187 miles in 19 hours; the Liverpool mail its 203 miles in 20 ho In 1799, Boulton and Watt constructed a heating apparatus, in Lee's factory, Manchester, in which the steam was conducted through cast-iron pipes, which also served one by a steam-engine. Fig. 5711 is that of Messrs. Ashton & Storey, of Manchester, England. It consists of a double-acting indicator cylinder, having its ends c An ingenious and effective machine for this purpose, patented by Morand of Manchester, is described in Newton's London journal of Arts and science for December, 18
e renders it more durable. Whitewashing-apparatus. White-wash′--ing-appa-ra′--tus. A reservoir with roller and brush for whitening walls and ceilings. The bibulous larger roller distributes the wash from the reservoir upon the ceiling; the smaller roller acts as a guide, and the brush precedes to remove dust. Whit′tle. An old name for the clasp-knife. A Sheffield whittle. — Chaucer. Whit′worth gun. (Ordnance.) A kind of rifle invented by Mr. Whitworth of Manchester, England. The bore is hexagonal in section and has a very rapid twist. The projectiles are very elongated in form and adapted to closely fit the bore, studs and expansible rings being dispensed with. Cannon and small arms, both muzzle and breech-loading, are constructed on this principle, the breech-loading form, however, being generally adopted. Fig. 7212 illustrates one of the latest of Mr. Whitworth's improvements. The gun is of cast-steel, compressed while still in a fluid sta
endulum vibrating in vacuo in the latitude of London at the level of the sea in a temperature of 60° Fah. Yard-tack′le. (Nautical.) A threefold tackle depending from the end of a lower yard-arm, for lifting boats and other weights. Yarn. Thread prepared for weaving. 1. Cotton yarn is numbered according to the number of hanks contained in a pound of 7,000 grains. Each hank or skein measures 840 yards. At the great exhibition of industry, London, 1853, Mr. Houldsworth of Manchester exhibited cotton yarn Nos. 100 to 2,150. No. 100 single cotton yarn weighs 70 grains. No. 500 single cotton yarn weighs 14 grains. No. 700 single cotton yarn weighs 10 grains. One pound weight of No. 2,150 extends upwards of 1,000 miles in length. Houldsworth is said to have attained a fineness represented by No. 10,000, one pound of which would extend 4,770 miles. This is marvelous. Yarn is made into hanks on a reel 4 1/2 feet in circumference, 80 revolutions of which m
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