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Cambria (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 14
from 35 to 40 pounds per yard. Many engineers advocate a 3-feet gage or one even narrower for some purposes or localities. The narrowest in actual operation, so far as we are aware, only two feet, is the Portmadoc and Festiniog Railway in North Wales, through a very difficult country. This was originally designed as a tramway for the transportation of slate, stone, and other minerals from the hills of Merionethshire to the sea, but has since been used for passengers and general freight. Little wonder (Portmadoc and Festiniog Railway, South Wales). Fig. 3296 represents an engine, called the Little wonder, employed on this road. It weighs 19 1/2 tons, and was first tested by a train 854 feet in length, consisting of 90 slate and 7 passenger cars, weighing 75 tons, constituting in all a load of 94 1/2 tons, which it drew at a speed varying from 14 1/2 to 26 1/4 miles an hour. Some of the curves on this road have a radius of but 1 3/4 chains. It is stated that an engine
Georgia (Georgia, United States) (search for this): chapter 14
his father, William Bradford, issued the first newspaper published in New York, the New York gazette, in 1725. From this period they multiplied rapidly in the Colonies. The common name Gazette is derived from the name of a Venetian coin, worth about a cent and a half, and which was the price of the Venetian newspaper first published. The Maryland gazette was established in 1727 or 1728; the Virginia gazette, 1736; the Rhode Island gazette, 1732; South Carolina gazette, 1731 or 1732; Georgia gazette, 1763. The first paper in New Hampshire was published in 1756, but in the adjacent State of Vermont none existed prior to 1781. After the Revolution, the history of newspaper progress becomes identical with that of the nation, the printing-press keeping closely in the van of Anglo-American civilization. The honor of publishing the first paper west of the Alleghanies is claimed for John Scull of Pittsburgh, who, it is stated, founded the Pittsburgh gazette in 1783. The fi
Cumberland, R. I. (Rhode Island, United States) (search for this): chapter 14
tented in England a machine for making nails from the prepared rod by drawing it between rollers having cavities corresponding to the shape of the nail; and in December of the same year he patented a process for drawing bars or plates to a varying thickness and cutting the nails therefrom by a punch. Machines of this kind were in operation at French's factory, Wineburne, Staffordshire, England, in 1792. Cut-nails were first made in this country. About 1775, Jeremiah Wilkinson of Cumberland, R. I., cut tacks from plates of sheet-metal, and afterward made nails and spikes in a similar manner, forming the heads in a vise. Ezekiel Reed of Bridgewater, Mass., in 1786, invented a machine for cutting nails from the plate, and in 1798 obtained a patent for cutting and heading them at one operation. Benjamin Cochran had also constructed a machine of this kind; and Josiah Person of New York, in 1794, patented a machine for cutting nails from the sheet. Perkins's machine, invented
Reef Point (Washington, United States) (search for this): chapter 14
laid rope. Pole-mast.Shrouds. Port.Shroud-plate. Port-tackle.Shroud-truck. Poy.Skeet. Preventer.Skipsail. Prow.Skysail. Puddening.Sky-scraper. Puoy.Slab-line. Purchase.Slice. Puttock shrouds.Sliding-gunter. Pyx.Slings. Quant.Slip-hook. Quarter.Slip-shackle. Quarter-block.Slip-stopper. Rack.Smiting-line. Raddle.Smoke-sail. Rafting and booming logs.Snaking. Raising-iron.Snotter. Ratline.Sounding. Rare-hook.Sounding-apparatus. Reef.Sounding-line. Reef-band.Sounding-rod. Reef-point.Span. Reef-tackle.Span-block. Reeming.Spanish burton. Reeming-beetle.Spanish windlass. Relieving-tackle.Spanker. Rhodings.Spar. Rhumb.Speck-block. Ridge-rope.Speed-indicator. Riding-bitts.Spencer. Rig.Spider. Spike-tackle.Tiller-rope. Spilling-line.Tilt. Splice.Toggle. Splicing-fid.Top. Splicing-shackle.Top-chain. Spring.Top-gallant. Sprit.Top-hamper. Sprit-sail.Top-mast. Sprit-sail yard.Topping-lift. Spun-yarn.Towing-bridle. Spurling-line.Train-tackle. Square-sail.
Syene (Egypt) (search for this): chapter 14
d hope, and then they will be wretchedly hungry, as much as to say, If God shall some day see fit not to grant the Greeks rain, but shall afflict them with a long drought, the Greeks will be swept away by a famine, since they have nothing to rely on but rain from Jove, and have no other resource for water. — Herodotus, II.13. Wilkinson, very unreasonably as it would appear, combats the idea of Herodotus, and states that the rise at Memphis has always averaged about 16 cubits; say 40 at Assouan, 36 at Thebes, 25 at Cairo, and 4 at the mouth of the river. See Wilkinson's Herodotus, Am. ed., 2d Vol., pp. 252 – 254. In the time of Pliny 12 cubits were a famine, 13 a scarcity, 15 was safety, 16 plenty. At the present day, 18 cubits is the lowest, and at this hight the canals are cut and distribution commences; 19 cubits are tolerable, 20 adequate, 21 excellent, 22 abundant, and 24 ruinous, as invading the houses and stores of the country. The nilometer at Cairo has been erecte
Aspinwall (Panama) (search for this): chapter 14
equires far less drilling and operates so as to lift the rock from its bed without shattering it to such an extent. The number of fatal explosions resulting from it have been an obstacle to its more general use, but these are claimed to have resulted generally from improper manufacture, exposure to too great heat in transportation, or carelessness in handling. Mowbray's nitro-glycerine Apparalus. Among the most prominent accidents occurring from these sources were the explosions at Aspinwall and in the office of Wells, Fargo, & Co. at San Francisco, by the former of which forty-five and by the latter six lives were destroyed. In the case of the Aspinwall disaster the nitroleum had been shipped from Hamburg, where the temperature was 55° or 60° to a tropical climate where the temperature in the hold of the steamer was probably more than double this. It was inclosed in cork-stopped vessels, packed in cases with sawdust. The explosion has been attributed to the disengagement o
Birmingham (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 14
of metal. When they first obtained nails, they mistook them for the young shoots of some very hard wood, and, hoping that life might not be quite extinct, planted a number of them carefully in their gardens. Eight years after the first voyage of Captain Cook, that distinguished navigator says iron had quite superseded stone and bone. Until eighty years since nails were always forged. Before the introduction of machine-made nails, 60,000 persons were employed in forging nails in Birmingham, England. One authority states that there are about 300 varieties of nails made in England, and 10 sizes of each variety. We have no such to present. The English mode of numbering, 7 lb., 8 lb., etc., denotes that 1,000 of the respective varieties would have those weights. This mode of enumeration is substantially similar to our own, but much variation has occurred. The following are the names, lengths, and number to the pound of the several sizes of nails: — Name.Inches long.N
Becket (Massachusetts, United States) (search for this): chapter 14
After-sail.Bower. Alarm.Bow-fast. Anchor.Bow-grace. Anchor-ball.Bowline. Anchor. DragBowline-bridle. Anchor DriftBowsprit. Anchor. Mushroom.Brace. Anchor-tripper.Brace-pendent. Apostles.Brail. Apparel.Breast-rail. Arming.Breaming. Back-rope.Breast-fast. Back-stay.Bridle. Bag-reef.Bridle-port. Bails.Broadside. Balance-reef.Bucklers. Ballast-shovel.Built-up. Balloon-jib.Bull's-eye. Bangles.Bumkin. Barking.Bunker. Beacon.Buntlines. Bear.Buoy. Bearing-binnacle.Buoy-rope. Becket.Burgee. Bee-block.Burr-pump. Bees.Burton. Belaying-pin.Cable. Bell-buoy.Cable-gripper. Belly-band.Cable-hook. Bend.Cable-nipper. Berth.Cable-shackle. Bibbs.Cable-stopper. Bight.Caburns. Bilge-water discharger.Cant-block. Billet-head.Cantick-quoin. Binnacle.Canvas. Bird's-nest.Cap. Bitter-end.Capstan. Bitts.Card. Bitt-stopper.Careening. Blare.Cargo-jack. Blast-engine.Cargo-port. Blind.Carrick-bend. Block.Carrick-bitt. Block and tackle.Cat. Blubber-guy.Cat-block. Blubber
Ins (Switzerland) (search for this): chapter 14
oke of cylinder.Revolutions. Min.Horses' power.Diameter and stroke of cylinder.Revolutions Min.Horses' power.Diameter and stroke of cylinder.Revolutions. Min. No.Ins. Ft.NoIns. Ft.No.Ins. Ft. 96×112546.112×4.532159.722×5.530 9.26×1.58555.314×347160.722×628 12.27×112556.314×3.541163.622×6.526 12.57×1.5855814×437169.422×725Ins. Ft.No.Ins. Ft. 96×112546.112×4.532159.722×5.530 9.26×1.58555.314×347160.722×628 12.27×112556.314×3.541163.622×6.526 12.57×1.5855814×437169.422×725 16.38×1.5856014×4.534183.724×5.529 16.98×1.757560.814×530193.524×628 21.19×1.58764.815×348194.724×6.526 21.39×1.757566.115×3.542193.524×724 21.49×26666.615×437198.724×7.523 21.59×2.55366.815×4.533227.126×628 26.110×1.58767.515×530228.526×6.526 26 610×1.757677 116×3.543227.126×724 27.210×26877 816×438233.226×7.523 27.510×Ins. Ft. 96×112546.112×4.532159.722×5.530 9.26×1.58555.314×347160.722×628 12.27×112556.314×3.541163.622×6.526 12.57×1.5855814×437169.422×725 16.38×1.5856014×4.534183.724×5.529 16.98×1.757560.814×530193.524×628 21.19×1.58764.815×348194.724×6.526 21.39×1.757566.115×3.542193.524×724 21.49×26666.615×437198.724×7.523 21.59×2.55366.815×4.533227.126×628 26.110×1.58767.515×530228.526×6.526 26 610×1.757677 116×3.543227.126×724 27.210×26877 816×438233.226×7.523 27.510×2.55578.316×4.534237.926×822 28.210×34779.416×53126628×6.526 28.710×3.54181.716×5.529274.428×725 28.810×43682.916×627270.528×7.523 33.911×27099.118×4.534275.828×822 33.311×2.555103.718×532279.928×8.521 33.411×346103.418×5 5
Massachusetts (Massachusetts, United States) (search for this): chapter 14
orm a starting-point for a kerf. Nick′el. Equivalent, 29.6; symbol, Ni.; specific gravity, 8.279, which is increased by hammering to 8.82. Fuzes at about 2,800° F. A brilliant, silver-white, ductile metal discovered by Cronstedt in a mineral derisively termed by the miners nick or copper-nick, on account of its resembling copper ore in appearance, but disappointing them by yielding no copper. Its ores are found in many parts of the world; in America they have been discovered in Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Tennessee, Missouri, and Canada. The principal are smaltine or smaltite, from which smalts, zaffre, and cobalt are also extracted; the residue after calcination, called speiss, yields some 50 per cent of nickel. Copper nickel contains about 45 per cent of nickel and a large amount of arsenic. Millerite, a sulphide of nickel, containing 65 per cent of nickel and 35 per cent of sulphur, is found in New York and Pennsylvania, and is lar
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