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Turquie (Turkey) (search for this): chapter 21
nto the lower chamber c of the filter. It then passes through the porous stone f into the upper chamber, whence it is drawn as required. A float on the surface of the water acts upon a faucet o to allow the flow of water as the supply of filtered water fails. White and Aveline's upward filter. When the water in lower chamber c becomes muddy, the faucet g is opened and the contents discharged, thus flushing the chamber and washing off the bottom of the stone. See also filter. In Turkey, a method of filtering water by ascension has been practiced, the arrangements for which are contrived as follows:-- Two wells are dug at a small distance apart, and partially filled with sand and gravel. The opening of that into which the water to be filtered is to run must be somewhat higher than that of the one into which it ascends; this latter should not be quite filled with the filtering material so that there may be room for the filtered water, or the water may be conducted by a s
Department de Ville de Paris (France) (search for this): chapter 21
n down her oiled umbrella's sides. Mr J. Jamieson, a Scottish surgeon, brought with him from Paris, in 1781, an umbrella, which was the first seen in Glasgow, where he resided, and where it attrae erected two obelisks at Heliopolis to celebrate the cure. The monolith in the Place Concorde, Paris, is understood to be one of the pair. Urn. A vessel enlarged in the middle and provided wits maximum in 1815, 24° 17′ 18″. In 1865 it was 20° 38. 2. Annual. This was first remarked at Paris by Cassini. 3. Diurnal. First remarked at London, by Graham, 1722. The changes are greatest ccasion, a party of nine, mounted on velocipedes, leaving Rouen early in the morning, arrived at Paris in time for dinner; the distance is 85 miles, and the rate of travel, exclusive of stoppages, wacognitions may be mentioned the Great Council Medal at London, 1851: the Grand Medal of Honor at Paris. 1855; and the Cross of the Legion of Honor from Louis Napoleon. Vyce. (Coopering.) A
Bristol (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 21
4 for the 8 ribs. Weighing the ribs, to give them all an equal flexure, requires 8 more transfers from hand to hand, and threading the ribs to the stretchers brings up the total series of operations required for the frame to nearly 150. Within comparatively few years, this cost, in London, from 1/2 d. to 2 1/2 d. each, for common umbrellas and parasols; one man and four boys can put together 100 frames daily. For covering each frame, women received from 1 d. upward. A tradesman in Bristol, England, has just made a monster umbrella for an African chief. It is 65 feet in circumference, the lancewood ribs being 6 feet long, and there are 140 yards of material in it. It is covered with red, blue, and white chintz, and takes two men to expand it. In Trinidad are colonies of ants, known as parasol ants, from the fact that each individual carries a leaf in his mouth, which shades his back. These luxurious insects, on being disturbed, rush into their holes and bring out a lot
th the triple crown or tiara. The machinery of worship in Europe, and here, so far as imported, is mostly of Asiatic originbrella over his master. Its use during the Middle Ages in Europe is frequently noted in monkish chronicles. They are menhina at a very early period, and probably found its way to Europe by the same secret channels as those arts whose footsteps are so difficult to trace. Western Europe obtained it from the Turks in 1721, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu having made the firthe first impulse to the study of terrestrial magnetism in Europe. We know positively from the Chinese Penthsaayan, which prepared artificially. It is made in large quantities in Europe and elsewhere, the processes varying somewhat in differentlcimer, known to the Arabs and Persians as santir, and to European nations of some centuries since as the cimbal, the cymbal by a bow. It was introduced by the Saracens or Moors into Europe, and was known in Italy in the twelfth century. It and it
Rouen (France) (search for this): chapter 21
1864; while the French bicycle of Lallemant was patented in this country in 1866. Numerous modifications and improvements followed, forming the subjects of patents, a list of some of which is appended. The speed attained by the swifter kinds of velocipedes averages from 12 to 13 miles an hour; 50 miles in 5 hours may be attained without the rider alighting from his vehicle; 123 miles within 24 hours has been accomplished. On one occasion, a party of nine, mounted on velocipedes, leaving Rouen early in the morning, arrived at Paris in time for dinner; the distance is 85 miles, and the rate of travel, exclusive of stoppages, was between 10 and 11 miles an hour. Grades exceeding 1 in 25 are said to be impracticable to the velocipede, and the rider in this case must dismount and lead his factitious steed, which, however, displays great docility on such occasions. Baron de Drais' velocipede. Fig 6926, from Stewart's Anecdotes of the steam-engine, published in 1829, illustrates
West Indies (search for this): chapter 21
ch shades his back. These luxurious insects, on being disturbed, rush into their holes and bring out a lot of very large chaps with big heads and tremendous nippers, who at once assume an attitude of self-defence, being, in fact, the bullies of the establishment, while the gentle parasol-bearer stands aside to watch the fun. This is almost as surprising as Sir John Lubbock's statement that some tribes of ants keep milch cows, and also an old beetle, whom they worship as an idol. —Talboy's West India pickle. Foote's lock-stand for umbrellas A traveler near Manjee, a small town at the confluence of the Gogra and the Ganges, mentions a baniantree which resembled an immense umbrella, being of a pyramidal shape, sloping from a central summit to the extremity of the lower branches. The limbs of these trees extend out a distance horizontally, and then let down to the ground a number of leafless fibers, which presently take root, coalesce, and increase in bulk, so as to support the pr
New Haven (Connecticut, United States) (search for this): chapter 21
d-coal fire. The heat is gradually increased, from say 160° at the commencement to 275° at the conclusion, — the process occupying about 10 hours of oven heat. The history of the discovery of vulcanization is a romance, and his its tragical features, if a life of hard work, brilliant discovery, base piracy, and defeated hopes may constitute the elements of a tragedy. Charles Goodyear, who added a new material to the substances before available for the uses of mankind, was born at New Haven, Conn., in 1800, and died in New York in 1860. His first discovery in relation to the mode of making indiarubber non-adhesive consisted in dipping the article — a shoe, for instance — in nitric acid. The effect of this was good, but was only surface-deep. This he patented in 1836, and articles were thus treated at Providence, R. I., for some years, till the discovery and introduction of vulcanization. 1839 was the date of his discovery, and 1844 that of his French patent, which was the fir
San Martin (California, United States) (search for this): chapter 21
in defecators and filters to boil it down to the point of granulation. The usual form of the Derosne vacuum-train is what is called the double effect, that is, two pans stand side by side, one of which is boiled by the steam rising from the sirup in the other the sirup being also drawn at intervals from the first to the second. A treble effect, by extending the principle to a third pan, has also been tried, without valuable results from the amplification of the idea. In the Yngenio San Martin sugar-works, a train of three pans is used, the middle one being the largest, and discharging its steam into the others. The Degrand condenser is used in connection with the pans. See Fig. 1421, page 609 In using the vacuum-pan, the sirup is run in as quickly as possible, until the whole of the heating surface is covered; the steam is then turned on, and the temperature maintained at 180° to 190°. When the sirup begins to granulate, the temperature is lowered to 160°; and just before
Oriental (Oklahoma, United States) (search for this): chapter 21
with an umbrella in his hand Dionysius is also represented descending, ad infernos, with a small umbrella. In one feast of Athene, a white parasol was borne by the priestesses of the goddess from the Acropolis to the Phalerus. Mr. Ferguson states, in his Handbook of architecture, that the umbrella is shown in the cave of Karli, in India, and supposes the sculpture to be over eighteen hundred years old. The umbrella so used is called a tee, or tope finial, is a prominent feature in some Oriental buildings, especially the Chinese. The pagodas are a series of umbrella-like roofs. One, two, and a terminal, like other illustrations of the law of climax, may have had something to do with the triple crown or tiara. The machinery of worship in Europe, and here, so far as imported, is mostly of Asiatic origin,—bells, rosaries, censers, robes, and banners, the common property of the Aryan nations, from the Ganges to the Atlantic. See praying-machine. The Tcheou-Li, a book of Chinese
Portici (Italy) (search for this): chapter 21
t it clasps the parts, and is thereby aided in keeping its position. Room is provided for the urethra in the notch at the base of the instrument. See also pessary. Uv′row. (Nautical.) See Uphroe. U′vu-la–for′ceps. Celsius, first century A. D., describes the use of the uvula-forceps; and an instrument supposed to be for that purpose was found by Dr. Savenko in 1819 in a house in Pompeii. It is pictured in Smith's Dictionary of Antiquities, page 274, and is in the Museum at Portici, together with lancets, spatulas, a cautery, catheters, needles, a tenaculum, probes, etc., found at the same time and place. See surgical instruments. U-vu′la-tome. A cutting instrument for operating on the uvula. a, tongue-holding forceps. d, Tiemann's uvulatome. b, vulsellum. e, Green's double hook. c, uvula-scissors with claws. Vac′ci-nator. (Surgical.) An instrument for introducing vaccine virus beneath the skin. The puncturing-tube, with virus in i
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