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34,600,000 tons of solid matter. Mahmoud, about 1024, after desolating Northern India for some years, came to Somnauth, and — omitting the details — plundered from the Temple of Siva the destroyer the rich offerings of centuries, carrying them and the doors of the temple to Afghanistan, where the latter were made the doors of his tomb. Here they rested till 1842, when the English, stung to madness by the massacre of 26,000 soldiers and camp followers in the Kyber pass, in the month of January of the same year, invaded Afghanistan in force, and conquered Akbar Khan. Lord Ellenborough, inflated with an august desire for poetical, historical, and every other kind of retribution, seized upon the doors of Mahmoud's tomb as representatives of the success of Mohammedan domination, and carried them back to India proper, chanting a paean whose refrain was the insult of eight hundred years is avenged, and commanding that the doors should be transmitted with all honor to the Temple of Siv
774, made farther improvements by suspending a balance-weight from the bell that on striking bottom took off the weight of the bell, which with its included air, being too light to sink, was more readily raised or lowered by the admission of air or water into an upper compartment, placing it completely under the control of those within it. For this the British Government decreed him a reward. The celebrated engineer Smeaton, about the year 1779, first used it for engineering purposes, and in 1788, having to prepare the foundation for the pier in Ramsgate Harbor, he contrived a bell by which the work was very greatly facilitated. This consisted of a nearly conical box of cast-iron, of great weight and solidity, capable of containing 50 cubic feet of air, or sufficient for two persons one hour; this was constantly charged by means of a pipe leading to a force-pump above. The diving-bell has been subsequently applied with great success to many important submarine engineering operations
edge Latin (pungere, Lat., to prick) as the base of their mother tongues. In the fourteenth century it was carried by citizens, yeomen, sailors, and ladies. It survives in England in the midshipman's dirk, and in other places as a stiletto, a bowie-knife, etc. The dagger seems to have been a favorite instrument as an accessory to the soldier's equipment for close combat. The Highlander, Western desperado, and Chilian, all seem to approve of the mode of carrying it recorded of Ehud 1336 B. C.: Ehud made him a dagger which had two edges, of a cubit length, and he did gird it upon his right thigh (Judges III. 16). The modern plan seems to be in the garter or the boot, unless it be worn in the belt, bosom, or down the back; mirabile dictu, such was known on the Mississippi and by Arkansaw travelers. Some ingenuity has been expended on this weapon in the mode of attaching it to the handle and providing the latter with a pistol. 2. (Printing.) A character (†) to call attenti
he loom, which brought up certain of the colors and depressed others, according to the requirements of the pattern. We read of similar goods in the year 1305 B. C., when Deborah celebrated the victory over Sisera: — Divers colors of needlework on both sides, meet for the necks of them that take the spoil. The events of the bloody battle of Mt. Tabor took place but four days march from Damascus, and it is probable that this ancient city was, as early as the times of Abraham (1996 – 1822 B. C.), the workshop of articles in metal, silk, wool, and flax, as well as the depot of an extensive trade between the Orientals on the east and the Phoenicians, the carriers of antiquity, on the west. Abraham's steward was a man of Damascus, and, in default of issue, would have been heir to his property. Through all the uproar of antiquity Damascus has maintained a prominent position, being geographically well situated and rich in the great necessity of a warm climate, water. Are not Ab
p for common uses. It is clinker-built, from 12 to 14 feet long, and has a beam one third of its length. Di-op′ter. An ancient altitude, angle, and leveling instrument; said to have been invented by Hipparchus. Dioptra. Di-op′tric light. The dioptric system of lighting, used in lighthouses, as distinguished from the catoptric, which is by reflectors. Refraction instead of reflection. Lenses were used in the South Foreland light in 1752, and in the Portland light, England, in 1789. The system fell into disfavor, owing to certain mechanical difficulties in the construction and arrangement of the lenses. It was revived and improved by Fresnel about 1810, and has been generally adopted throughout France and Holland, and partially in England. It is considered superior to the catoptric, and was readopted in England in 1834, being placed in the Lundy Island Lighthouse, Devonshire, England. The Fresnel dioptric lamp consists of a mechanical, four-wicked oil-lamp, plac
tion a. The rays striking above and below were bent so as to assume a position parallel to those proceeding from the hoop, as seen in the section b. Di-op′tric mi-crom′e-ter. A form of the double image micrometer, introduced by Ramsden (1735-1800), in which the divided lens is in the eye-tube. In the ordinary form it is the objectglass which is divided. Dio-ra′ma. A mode of scenic representation in which the spectator and picture are placed in separate rooms, and the picture viewed A bricklayer's bench having a cast-iron plate on which the sun-dried brick is rubbed, polished, and beaten with a paddle to make it symmetrical. Dressing-bench. Dress′ing—machine′. (For yarn.) A machine invented by Johnson, England, in 1800. The hardtwisted yarn is sized, scraped, brushed, and dried by heat and a blast of air. The object is to remove the fuzz and give it a slight gloss. Dressings. The moldings and sculptured decorations used on a wall or ceiling. Dri
. After eleven years use the weight of water, which had attained a hight of 156 feet, April 30, 1802, burst the wall, making a tunnel 100 feet high and 70 feet broad, discharging the whole contents awn from the surface of the body. The depurator is described in Nathan Smith's English patent, 1802. The chamber is filled with steam and the air exhausted to the extent required by the patient, gould by a single push loosen the pole and set the horses at liberty. William's English patent, 1802, operates by a cord releasing a bolt, which allows the studs to which the traces are attached to docks of London: — Pitt laid the foundation-stone of the West-India August 15, 1800; opened in 1802. London docks, built 1802 – 5. Victoria, 1855. The Livcrpool and Birkenhead docks, 1810 – 57. 1802 – 5. Victoria, 1855. The Livcrpool and Birkenhead docks, 1810 – 57. 2. (Harness.) The divided piece forming part of the crupper, through which the horse's tail is inserted. Dock′er. A stamp for cutting and piercing dough in making crackers or sea-biscuit
lowered to the mud, and traversed by an endless chain provided with boards at intervals. The boards scraped up the mud and carried it up in the trough, from whose upper end it was discharged into lighters. A horsewheel was employed. In the reign of Charles I., Balme made a vertical wheel with six buckets, which worked between boats and raised mud. It was employed in the fens of Lincolnshire. About 1708, Savery patented a steam dredgingmachine for raising ballast from the Thames. In 1796, Watt made a steam dredger for deepening Sunderland Harbor. The dredging-machine described by the Marquis of Worcester was a water-screw, but the bottom made of iron plate, spade-wise, which at the side of a boat emptieth the mud of a pond or raiseth gravel. The dredging-machine described in the Theatrum Instrumentorum et Machinarum, 1578, was rather an elevator than a dredger. The buckets were attached to endless chains, which passed over two drums, driven by winch-power. Laborers fi
January 31st, 1871 AD (search for this): chapter 4
ows are too wide apart. A double-moldboard plow was used by the Romans in ribbing the ground for wheat. This left the ground in ridges whose summits were seeded by hand-drilling. Doub′le Pi′ca. (Printing.) A size of type double the hight of Pica. Great Primer. English. Pica. Small Pica. Doub′le-piled Fab′ric-loom. One in which a pile is formed on both sides of the foundation, and which may be produced from either the warp or weft. See Crompton's patent, January 31, 1871. Doub′le-pis′--ton pump. One which works two pistons from a single lever or handle. It may be double or single acting as to the separate pistons. Double-piston pump. In Fig. 1708 the pistons are effective alternately, each upon its up stroke. One bucket slides on the rod of the other. The lever gives reciprocating rotation to the pinion a which works the racks b c, which back against rollers d d; g h are the upper rod and bucket, p and e f the lower pair. i is th
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