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Thomas Young (search for this): chapter 5
plate of brass, having an aperture of about one fiftieth of an inch in diameter in the center of a circle of one half inch in diameter, and perforated with small holes. The fiber or particle to be measured is fixed in a slider, and the eriometer being placed before a strong light, and the eye assisted by a lens applied behind the small hole, the rings of colors will be seen. The slider must then be drawn out or pushed in till the limit of the first red and green ring (the one selected by Dr. Young) coincides with the circle of perforations, and the index will then show on the scale the size of the particle or fiber. — Brewster's Optics. Es-cape. (Telegraphy.) Leakage of current from the line-wire to ground, caused usually by defective insulation and contact with partial conductors. Es-capement. A device intervening between the power and the time-measurer in a clock or watch, to convert a continuous rotary into an oscillating isochronous movement. It is acted on by eac
st it by compressing the reservoir, as in the example. The device shown is also applicable to the eyeball for the purpose of preventing myopia by preserving the convexity of the cornea; the bag c, being partially exhausted, is allowed to expand after the edges of the cups are seated upon the eye-balls. Eye-ex′tir-pator. A surgical instrument for removing the eye. Putting out the eyes has long been a common Oriental punishment. The eyes of Zedekiah were put out by Nebuchadnezzar. Xenophon states that in the time of the younger Cyrus the practice was so common that the blinded men were a common spectacle on the highways. The Kurds and Turkestan hordes yet blind their aged prisoners. Eye-glasses. Eye-glass. 1. (Optics.) The glass nearest to the eye of those forming the combination eye-piece of a telescope or microscope. The other glass, nearer to the object-glass, is called the field-glass. See negative eye-piece. 2. A pair of glasses to aid the sight; usuall
John Wyatt (search for this): chapter 5
that; the bridge-rail, which presents an arched tread and has lateral flanged feet; the footrail, which has a tread like the edg-rail, but, unlike it, has a broad base formed by foot flanges. The first public railway laid with edge rails was made by Jessop of Loughborough, England, 1789. They were of cast-iron in 3 or 4 feet lengths, and had vertical holes near each end by which they were wooden-pinned to the sleepers. They were fishbellied, and subsequently laid on cast-iron chairs. Wyatt's patent in 1800 was an oval east-iron rail. The upper surface was afterwards flattened. Rolled-iron edge-rails were made in 1820 under Birkenshaw's patent. See rail; Railway. b. A rail placed by the side of the main rail at a switch to prevent the train from running off the track when the direction is changed. Edge-roll. (Bookbinding.) A brass wheel, used hot, in running an edge ornament on a book cover, either gold or blind. Edge-shot. A board with its edge planed
Christopher Wren (search for this): chapter 5
2. The copperplate roller-press was invented in 1545. Etching on copper by means of aqua-fortis invented by F. Mazzuoli or Parmegiano, A. D. 1532. Mezzotinto engraving invented by De Siegen, 1643; improved by Prince Rupert, 1648; and by Sir Christopher Wren, 1662. Mr. Evelyn showed me most excellent painting in little [miniature]; in distemper, in Indian incke, water-colours : graveing; and, above all, the whole secret of mezzo-tinto, and the manner of it, which is very pretty, and good things done with it. — Pepys's Diary, Nov. 1, 1665. At Gresham College, the Royal Society meeting, Mr. Hooke explained to Mr. Pepys the art of drawing pictures by Prince Rupert's rule and machine and another of Dr. Wren's [Sir Christopher]; but he [Dr. Hooke] says nothing do like squares, or, which is best in the world, like a dark room. — Pepys, Feb. 21, 1666. These devices are apparently for copying; the former is probably on the principle of the pantograph; the squares is a familiar mod
D. Williamson (search for this): chapter 5
a body of atmospheric air to be tested; one third the amount of condensation may be ascribed to the removal of oxygen, whose proportions for combining with hydrogen to form water are, oxygen 1, hydrogen 2, by bulk. The space between the thumb and the surface of the water in the open leg forms an air-cushion when the gases explode. Dobereiner's is founded upon the power of spongy platinum to cause the combination of oxygen and hydrogen gas. The labors of Bunsen, Regnault, and Reiset, Williamson and Russell, Franklin and Ward, have brought the instrument to the present efficient form. Eu′phroe. A long slat of wood, perforated for the passage of the awning-cords which suspend the ridge of an awning. The euphroe (or uphroe) and its pendent cords from a crow-foot Eu′style. (Architecture.) That style of intercolumniation in which the space between the columns was 2 1/2 times their diameter; so called from being considered the most beautiful style. E-vap′o-rating-co
arth-belt, is shown in Fig. 1894. It has adjustment for depth of cut, and the dirt excavated by the hollow share is carried upwardly and backwardly by the shovel-belt and dropped into the chute, which discharges it at the side of the trench. Willard's excavator. Willard's excavator, which has been so widely used in making railway embankments in the broad West, is shown in Fig. 1895. Its principal use in practice has been to dig soil by the side of the track and dump it on to the road, tWillard's excavator, which has been so widely used in making railway embankments in the broad West, is shown in Fig. 1895. Its principal use in practice has been to dig soil by the side of the track and dump it on to the road, to form a bed for the ballast and sleepers. The earth is scraped up by the shovel, carried between the wheel and a traveling apron, and dropped into a hopper. When this is full, the machine is drawn on to the site of the road and the load dumped. Chapman's excavator. The excavator (Fig. 1896) is mounted on a carriage which traverses on a temporary track. At one end of the frame is a crane, which has a circular adjustment on its axial post. To the end of the chain-tackle is suspended a
mediate distances. The interstices of the fascines and the space between the rows are filled in with sand. The upper part, forming the encasement for the ballast, is made of three rows of treble fascines, well staked, and wattled together. A core of sand or clay, faced with step fascines, is made up to low-water mark. Upon this a bed of rushes, fastened down by stakes and wattles, is laid; and the upper portion of the bank is faced with fascines of a regular slope of 1 to 1. See also Wiggins's Embankments of lands from the sea (Weale's series). Em-bat′tled. (Fortification.) Having a parapet with embrasures. Em-bo′lus. Something inserted in another and moving therein, as a wedge, a piston of a steamcylinder, the bucket or plunger of a pump. Em-bossed′ Pa′per. Paper having an ornamented surface of raised work; done by stamping or rolling. Embossed paper or cards may be copied in metal by taking a mold in wax, treating the surface with graphite, and subje
Wheatstone (search for this): chapter 5
net. The first known clock of this kind was invented by Wheatstone and exhibited by him in 1840. Appold, Bain, Shepherd, a instruments and codes of the no less illustrious Morse, Wheatstone, and others. See voltaic pile ; galvanic battery ; elective-power is derived from electric action. Invented by Wheatstone. Those which are operated by the usual means, but ares of electro-magnetic engines have also been invented by Wheatstone, Talbot, Hearder, Hjorth, and others. Professor Jacobi of wire which was thought requisite. The attention of Wheatstone, in England, appears to have been drawn to the subject o from that of Bain. See electro-chemical telegraph. Wheatstone's first telegraph comprised five pointing needles and astaic battery. The single-needle telegraph of Cook and Wheatstone is caused to indicate the letters and figures by means o lettered disk, operated in much the same way as that of Wheatstone, from keys arranged like those of a piano, and a receivi
of progressively smaller size to the lower end of the series, and are heated by steamjackets. The pans are connected by pipes furnished with stop-cocks. A connected history of the process of manufacturing sugar is given under sugar-manufacturing, and some things are omitted in this to avoid duplication. See also condenser, Degrand, which acts as an evaporator of the sirup poured over it, while it condenses the vapor from the vacuum-pan with which it is charged. See vacuum-pan. The Wetzel pan is heated by steam. It is a long tank with a semi-cylindrical lower portion in which revolves a hollow wheel heated by a constant flow of steam. Drums on the shaft are also full of steam, and are connected by pipes, steam-heated. Revolving slowly, it exposes a considerable surface to and agitates the sirup, which constantly drips off that portion exposed to the air. The Bour pan is somewhat similar, but the revolving, heating surface is made up of steam-heated drums on a shaft, rev
imore. Professor Morse deserves high honor for the ingenious manner in which he availed himself of scientific discoveries previously made by others, for many important discoveries of his own, and for the courage and perseverance which he manifested, in endeavoring to render his system of practical utility to mankind by bringing it prominently to the notice of the public; and he lived to see it adopted in its essential features throughout the civilized world. In the mean while Gauss and Weber, and after them Steinheil, in Germany, were at work, and constructed a short line between the Royal Academy at Munich and the observatory; this, by means of right and left hand deflection-needles, was caused to print dots on a continuous slip of paper, moved by clock-work. While making experiments in connection with this work, Steinheil made the important discovery that the earth might be used as a part of the circuit, thus enabling him to dispense with one half the length of wire which w
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