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Austria (Austria) (search for this): chapter 5
f paper the dots and dashes composing his alphabet. The paper itself is now generally dispensed with, at least in this country, and the signals read by sound, — a practice which conduces to accuracy in transmission, as the ear is found less liable to mistake the duration and succession of sounds than the eye to read a series of marks on paper. Bain, in 1846, patented the electro-chemical telegraph which dispensed with the relay-magnet at intermediate stations; and subsequently Gintl, in Austria, and Bonelli, constructed telegraphs of this class, varying in details from that of Bain. See electro-chemical telegraph. Wheatstone's first telegraph comprised five pointing needles and as many line wires, requiring the deflection of two of the needles to indicate each letter. His first dial instrument was patented in 1840; modifications were, however, subsequently made in it. The transmission of messages was effected by a wheel having fifteen teeth and as many inter-spaces, each r
Russia (Russia) (search for this): chapter 5
of copper became covered with copper and would stand burnishing. It was not until 1838 that Mr. Spencer gave it a practical bearing by making casts of coin and casts in intaglio from the matrices thus formed. Professor Jacobi of Dorpat, in Russia, had been an independent inventor, and in the same year brought forward specimens which were much admired and caused him to be put in charge of gilding the iron dome of the Cathedral of St. Isaac at St. Petersburg. This dome weighs about 448,00 piece of metal whose function it is to keep the metallic solution to its normal strength. Copper and its alloys and German silver are the metals upon which gold or silver are most readily deposited. Electro-plating with iron has been done in Russia by a process invented by Jacobi and Klein; it is much more durable than copper, and is said to afford good results, having been used by the Russian government for printing bank-notes. A United States patent was granted for this process in 1868.
Hammersmith (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 5
and Reusser, in 1794, proposed the employment of letters formed by spaces cut out of parallel strips of tin-foil pasted on sheets of glass, which would appear luminous on the passage of the electric spark. In 1795, Cavallo proposed to transmit letters and numbers by a combination of sparks and pauses. Don Silva, in Spain, appears to have previously suggested a similar process. See electrical apparatus. In 1816, Mr. Ronalds experimented with a frictional electricity telegraph at Hammersmith. The current had to pass through eight miles of wire, and the signals were made by means of light pith-balls. The reading was effected by dials at each station having a synchronous movement derived from clockwork. Upon their circumferences the letters of the alphabet were engraved, and a screen with a hole cut through it was arranged at each end of the line, so that only one letter should be visible at a time. The operator at the transmitting station waited until the letter be wanted
Norway (Norway) (search for this): chapter 5
c′tro-lyte. The compound in the electroplating bath which is decomposed by the electric action. E-lec′tro-mag′net. A bar of soft iron rendered temporarily magnetic by the passage of a current of electricity through a coil of wire by which the bar is surrounded. The electro-magnet of the Stevens Institute of Technology weighs in all about 1,600 pounds; eight brass spools, each of which is wound with 272 coils of copper wire insulated with kerite. The hollow spools contain cores of Norway iron, four to each core. The lifting-force of the magnet is from thirty to fifty tons. E-lec′tro-mag-net′ic A-larm′. One which is brought into action by the closing an electro-magnetic circuit. This may be a burglar-alarm in which the opening of a door or window is made to close a circuit mechanically; or it may be a fire-alarm in which the lengthening of a rod or a change in its shape is made to close a circuit. In some cases, a column of mercury is expanded by the heat and t
Geneva (Switzerland) (search for this): chapter 5
many years to the discovery and application of enamels of various colors to pottery. He was remarkably successful in true copies of natural objects. His method died with him. He died in 1589, in prison, for consciencea sake. John Petitot, of Geneva (1607 – 91), is regarded as one of the first to excel in portraits. He worked for Charles I. of England, and subsequently for Louis XIV. of France. The revocation of the Edict of Nantes drove him from France to the city of his birth, Geneva. Geneva. In 1632, Jean Tontin, of Chateaudun, introduced the practice of grinding the colors in oil of spike, instead of water. Faience and majolica may be considered forms of the art. The enameled portrait of herself, presented by Queen Victoria to Mr. Peabody, is fresh in the recollection of those who speak the language common to the donor and presentee. Enamel is applied to various kinds of pots and pans for stewing and preserving fruits whose flavor would be injured by contact with iron,
e is no appreciable current in the bridge a b, in which is inserted the galvanometer G. In use, the resistance of one of the members, say 4, being known, the unknown resistance is inserted in 2 and its resistance calculated from the deflections of the needle in the galvanometer, caused by the current thrown through the bridge. See Duplextelegraph. Electric cable. E-lec′tric Ca′ble. Various forms of telegraph cable for submarine uses have been proposed. That between England and Ireland is composed of a single copper wire covered with gutta-percha, surrounded by hempen yarn, and the whole protected by ten No. 8 iron wires twisted. That between Dover and Calais has four copper wires covered with gutta-percha twisted into a rope, and protected in similar manner. It weighs seven, and the Irish two, tons to the mile. The first Atlantic cable was composed of seven No. 22 copper wires, covered with gutta-percha, hempen yarn, and an outside coating of iron wire. This weighed
Milwaukee (Wisconsin, United States) (search for this): chapter 5
ath. Elevator-leg. In unloading from ships, the leg is a pivoted, adjustable piece, which is first raised to obtain the necessary hight, brought over the hatchway, and lowered thereinto. In practice, the grain is discharged into the hopper of a weighing-machine gaged exactly for one hundred bushels; by pulling on a valve the contents are sent by a spout to the bin, the valve closed, the elevating resumed, and so on. Seven thousand bushels an hour are thus weighed. An elevator at Milwaukee is 280 feet long and 80 feet wide. The total length of the great driving-belt, urged by a 200-horse-power engine, is 280 feet, that is, the half extending from cellar to comb is 140 feet, and the down half is of course equal to it. This belt is 36 inches wide and 3/4 of an inch thick, and is made of six-ply or thicknesses of canvas, with sheets of india-rubber passed between and into them. It drives nine receiving elevators or belts set with buckets, each of which lifts the grain 140 fee
Magdeburg (Saxony-Anhalt, Germany) (search for this): chapter 5
by the extent of the deep intervening occanic basins. Gilbert was surgeon to Queen Elizabeth and James I., and died in 1603. The electric-telegraph preceded the electro-magnetic by many years. See electric-telegraph. Otto Guericke, of Magdeburg, discovered that there was a repulsive as well as an attractive force in electricity, observing that a globe of sulphur, after attracting a feather to it, repelled it until the feather had again been placed in contact with some other substance.red the fundamental identity of the forces known as magnetism and electricity, and measured the strength of the electricity excited by rubbing amber, glass, resin, etc. His electrometer was an iron needle poised on a pivot. Otto Guericke, of Magdeburg, recognized phenomena of repulsion. He heard the first sound and saw the first light in artificially excited electricity. Newton saw the first traces of an electric charge in 1675, in some experiment with a rubbed plate of glass. Although
Turin (Italy) (search for this): chapter 5
tal are of 180°. Two lamps are used alternately, the carbon-points lasting four hours. Expense, twenty cents per hour. E-lec′tric log. An electric circuit through the log-line to the detent of an escapement in the register-log, so that by touching a key on deck a circuit may be completed, an armature attracted, and thus the starting and stopping of the mechanical register in the log be exactly timed. See log. E-lec′tric loom. In 1852 an electric loom was exhibited by Bonelli at Turin. The invention was at that time in a crude state, but has since been much improved. The object is to dispense with the perforated cards required in the Jacquard apparatus. For this purpose, an endless band of paper covered with tin-foil is used, on which the required pattern is traced with a varnish, rendering the parts thus covered nonconducting. This band is caused to pass under a series of thin metallic teeth, each connected with a small electromagnet, which operate a series of pist
Fort Fisher (North Carolina, United States) (search for this): chapter 5
rriages are hooked together, and are drawn by horses and a towing-rope. A railway on this principle was constructed in 1825 at Cheshunt, in England, and used for conveying bricks across the marshes to the river Lea, where they were shipped. Fisher's English patent, 1825, in the same figure, shows a suspended carriage between two lines of rail. In the figure, the bar a with rail-flanges b b is shown suspended by rods from a catenary chain, which is supposed to be spanning a river or deeporms are elevated by a perpendicular lift operated by compressed air. In India, Australia, and some other places, it has not been unusual to cross gullies and rivers by means of a bucket or basket suspended from a cord. The patents of Palmer, Fisher, and Dick, already cited, are an amplification of this idea, a carriage being arranged to travel on a rail. The idea has recently been reduced to practice in a compact and useful form. See wire-way. El′e-vating—block. A tackle-block us
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