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Loughborough (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 5
h. Edge-rail. (Railroad.) a. One form of railroad-rail, which bears the rolling stock on its edge. The rail is contradistinguished by its name from the flat-rail, which was first used; the angle-rail, which succeeded that; the bridge-rail, which presents an arched tread and has lateral flanged feet; the footrail, which has a tread like the edg-rail, but, unlike it, has a broad base formed by foot flanges. The first public railway laid with edge rails was made by Jessop of Loughborough, England, 1789. They were of cast-iron in 3 or 4 feet lengths, and had vertical holes near each end by which they were wooden-pinned to the sleepers. They were fishbellied, and subsequently laid on cast-iron chairs. Wyatt's patent in 1800 was an oval east-iron rail. The upper surface was afterwards flattened. Rolled-iron edge-rails were made in 1820 under Birkenshaw's patent. See rail; Railway. b. A rail placed by the side of the main rail at a switch to prevent the train from
Montpelier (Vermont, United States) (search for this): chapter 5
om lixiviation in the latter respect. To recover saccharine matter from animal charcoal, the latter may be lixiviated, water being passed through the mass to carry off the sugar. To remove saccharine and coloring matters from starch in the process of manufacture, the material is elutriated, and the granules of starch settle in the bottom of the vat; the substances remaining in solution are removed by decantation. El-y-dor′ic Paint′ing. A mode of painting invented by Vincent, of Montpelier, intended to combine the fresh appearance of water-colors and the mellowness of oil-painting. The vehicle for the pigments is an emulsion of oil and water with the intervention of a gum or mucilage. Em. (Printing.) The square of the body of a type. As the m in early fonts had a square body, it became a unit of measure for compositors' work. E-mail′—om′brant. A process which consists in flooding colored but transparent glasses over designs stamped in the body of earthen
Buffalo, N. Y. (New York, United States) (search for this): chapter 5
outs is 12,000 bushels an hour. A vessel with a capacity for 18,000 bushels may be loaded in an hour and a half. The Oswego and Ogdensburg schooners and vessels destined for the Welland Canal usually take on from 12,000 to 20,000 bushels. The Buffalo vessels are larger, often receiving 30,000, and in a few cases 45,000 bushels. 4. (Surgical.) An instrument employed in raising portions of bone which have been depressed, or for raising and detaching the portion of bone separated by the crce in the harbor much damaged, and a number of lives were lost. An explosion of a storehouse containing some hundreds of pounds of nitro-glycerine took place at Fairport, Ohio, in 1870, accompanied with much loss of life. The shock was felt at Buffalo, 160 miles distant. Nobel, in 1867, invented a compound called dynamite, which consists of three parts nitroglycerine and one part of porous earth. Dynamite is supposed to be safe against explosion from concussion or pressure. See dynamite.
Auteuil (France) (search for this): chapter 5
n which gold or silver are most readily deposited. Electro-plating with iron has been done in Russia by a process invented by Jacobi and Klein; it is much more durable than copper, and is said to afford good results, having been used by the Russian government for printing bank-notes. A United States patent was granted for this process in 1868. See also Garnier's process, Photographic journal, Vol. VI., p. 31 et seq. An important improvement in electro-plating is that of M. Oudry of Auteuil, near Paris, for coating large objects made of iron with a thick layer of copper. In the old process it was customary to clean the pieces to be plated, and after subjecting them to a weak preliminary bath in order to form a thin film on the surface, to transfer them to a stronger bath, where they were subjected to voltaic action for several days. In this part of the process it was found that, owing to the strength of the acid bath, and the imperfection of the preliminary coating, the iron
Llandaff (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 5
or. See Culley's Handbook of telegraphy, London, 1870, pp. 199-203. E-lec′tric Tel′e-graph. That form of electric signaling apparatus in which an insulated wire excited by frictional electricity is — or rather was — used to convey messages by sparks or shocks. For notices of early observations, see electrical apparatus. Gray, in 1729, experimented with conductors; Nollet soon afterwards sent a shock along a line of men and wires 900 toises in length; Watson, the learned Bishop of Llandaff, in 1745, sent a shock through 12,000 feet of wire, and proved that it was practically instantaneous throughout its length. He signaled an observer by this means. A writer in the Scots' magazine, in 1753, proposed a series of wires from the ends of which were to be suspended light balls marked with the letters of the alphabet, or bells which were to be moved by an electric current directed to the appropriate wire. Lesage, at Geneva, in 1774, actually constructed a telegraph arranged
Colorado (Colorado, United States) (search for this): chapter 5
The quantity of rain which falls in that region is remarkable. See rain-gage. Embalming was practiced by the Guanches, or aboriginal inhabitants of the Canary Islands, and by the ancient Peruvians. Mummies from the latter source are now to be seen in the museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Some bodies have been preserved for ages by burial in caverns, the earthen floors of which contained a notable quantity of saltpeter. The steepes of Tartary, some of the uplands of Montana and Colorado, and the dry uplands of the Andes, are nitrous. Many caves are so also, the Mammoth Cave of Kentucky, for instance. In very recent times, with the increase of chemical knowledge, considerable attention has been devoted to the subject, and various processes and compounds have been devised. Dr. Chausier employed a solution of corrosive sublimate, with which the corpse, previously disembowelled and cleansed, is saturated; this imparts firmness to the flesh and renders it imputrescent.
France (France) (search for this): chapter 5
nd key; about the same time D'Alibard and others in France erected a pointed rod forty feet high at Marli, fors, England, in 1862, and was introduced at La Heve, France, a year or two later. The machines employed at eac pointer telegraphs have been devised by Breguet in France, Siemens and Halske and Kramer in Germany, and varibtful whether it would be possible to find, even in France, embroideries as beautiful and perfect as those som I. of England, and subsequently for Louis XIV. of France. The revocation of the Edict of Nantes drove him from France to the city of his birth, Geneva. In 1632, Jean Tontin, of Chateaudun, introduced the practice o 1664. Aquatint engraving invented by St. Non of France, 1662. Engraving in steel introduced into England time. Originally made in England, but improved in France. Equa-tori-al. A telescope mounted to follow The practice adopted in the United States, in France, in England, and Holland is to mix such earth in si
Broadway (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 5
A railway with an elevated track. Any railroad supported on a continuous viaduct may be said to be an elevated railway, but the term has lately received a rather more limited application. It is now particularly applied to city railroads whose track is so elevated as not to materially infringe upon the street area, already too limited for the convenience of the citizens and the traffic. The necessities for more convenient transportation of passengers in New York City, especially on Broadway, have perhaps given the greatest stimulus to invention in this line, and the question of elevated railway versus subterranean railway has been very thoroughly debated. The capitals and other large cities of the world were not originally laid out for the modern means of locomotion. We see in the cities of Asia the condition which formerly existed in European towns, — narrow streets without sidewalks, adapted for pedestrians, equestrians, pack-animals, and sedanchairs. Jeddo, Macao, and
America (Netherlands) (search for this): chapter 5
point on the varnished roller. The points are moved by elaborate machinery, and the effect is analogous to that of the eccentric and rose-engine lathes. 2. An apparatus on the principle of the pantograph, but provided with a cutting device and machinery for causing pressure upon the surface to be engraved, so as to produce lines similar to those made by hand with the graver. Collas (English patent) engraving-machine, 1830. Electro-magnetic engraving-machine used in Germany, 1854; in America, 1858. Guerrant and Field's engraving-machine was patented in 1867, and was in operation in New York City during the year 1868. To engrave by means of this machine the operator sits with a copy of the drawing, photograph, or whatever design is to be engraved, directly in front of him. A small pointer rests upon the drawing, and the whole operation consists in moving the pointer over the several lines of the copy. The pointer is operated by two small cranks, one of which produces a vert
n the passage of a thunder-cloud. Similar experiments were repeated throughout Europe, and in 1753 Richman was instantly killed at St. Petersburg by a discharge from to the subject of telegraphy; and in that year, while on his passage home from Europe, invented the form of telegraph since so well known as Morse's. A short lineomotion. We see in the cities of Asia the condition which formerly existed in European towns, — narrow streets without sidewalks, adapted for pedestrians, equestriana, having stood still, preserves the institutions to which we have alluded; Western Europe and the West have outgrown them some time since. The topography of old Bf Philadelphia, 1819. The earliest application of the wood-engraver's art in Europe was in cutting blocks for playingcards. The French writers ascribe it to the tutes, and then washing and drying it. It has been experimented with by several European nations in connection with fire-arms, but was found to be dangerous, and to ra
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