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re made of a variety of colors, are very soft and pliable, and have a very neat finish. Gloves are made with corrugated rubber palms for use in washing. Pliny recommends the use of gloves and boots to those engaged in pulling spartium, — a variety of the broom, and used, when soaked and broken like hemp, to make coarse cordage and the commonest description of garments. He also recommended them to his secretary, that he might not be impeded by chilly fingers in noting down memoranda. Xenophon ridicules the effeminacy of the glovewearing Persians. (Cyrop. VIII. 8, 17.) They do not appear to have been worn by the ancient Egyptians, but were regarded as a part of the indicative dress of Northern barbarians. Some dirty-handed cynics calling themselves philosophers railed at the Roman gentry for wearing gloves. The father of Ulysses wore gloves while working in his garden. So said Homer. The use of gloves in common life is a habit of late introduction. During the Middle
h are represented to the spectators, who stand on a framework inside. The globe of Gottorp was 11 feet in diameter; that of Dr. Long was 18 feet in diameter. Mr. Wyld's, 1851-61, was 60 feet 4 inches in diameter. The concavity of each of these represented the terrestrial surface. Wyld's globe was lighted by openings duringWyld's globe was lighted by openings during the day and by gas at night. See globe. Geo-stat′ic arch. (Architecture.) A linear arch of a figure suited to sustain a pressure similar to that of the earth, which consists, in a given vertical plane, of a pair of conjugate pressures, one vertical and proportional to the depth below a given plane, horizontal or slopinger the designs of Tycho Brahe, and turned on its axis. Dr. Long's globe was 18 feet in diameter, and held thirty persons, who viewed it while it was in motion. Mr. Wyld erected in Leicester Square a globe 60 feet 4 inches in diameter. Its concavity represents the terrestrial surface. It was lighted by openings during the day a
purpose it was used by Mr. Osborne in Australia, in Southampton, England, and now very extensively in this country. See photolithography. Poitevin's process, 1855, belongs to this group, and is typical of its kind. He coated the stone with bichromated albumen, and put it through the actinic processes in situ, then inked up on the stone. Another process in the second group is Photogalvanography (which see). See also Photoglyphic engraving; Photozincograph. A third process is the Woodburn, in which a gelatine picture, having been obtained by light, is placed in contact with a sheet of soft metal, and submitted to heavy hydraulic pressure. Bearing in mind that the gelatine picture is a picture in relief and depression, the metallic counterpart obtained by pressure will be in reversed relief and depression. A mold will have been obtained, which it will only be necessary to fill with a solution of gelatine to obtain a duplicate, so to speak, of the gelatine picture from whi
S. W. Wood (search for this): chapter 7
tion is repeated again and again, so long as any gelatinous matter can be extracted from the scraps. Glue was used by the cabinet-makers of ancient Egypt. The Greeks used various sticky matters, such as glue, bird-lime, and cobblers' wax. Wood is joined together with glue, prepared from certain parts of oxen, and with such strength that the veins of boards will open in a crack, sooner than the seams of ox-glue will relax their fastenings. — Lucretius, Book VI: Isinglass glue; soak ispidary's mill.Straggling. Lead-mill.Strickle. Lens. Grinding, etc.Tanite. Liner.Tape-carrier. Lustering.Tool-holder for grinding. Marble-polishing.Tripoli. Martin.Tumbler. Mill (varieties, see mill).Varnish. Whetstone.Whiting. Whetter.Wood-polishing machine. Grind′ing and Pol′ish-ing ma-te′ri-als. Abrasive substances used in the solid form: — Grindstone.Charcoal. Hone.Emery-cake. Oil-stone.Fish-skin. Abrasive substances used in powder; materials stated in about th
Cardinal Wolsey (search for this): chapter 7
employed for blunderbusses, wall-pieces, and small artillery. Grape-trel′lis. A structure on which grapevines are trained. See trellis.. Previous to 1547 (time of Edward VI.) grapes were brought from Flanders to England. The vine was introduced into England in 1552. The statements of the growth of the vine in Britain (time of Julius Caesar) seem to lack confirmation. One of the largest vines in Europe is that of Hampton Court Palace, near London, the famous palace built by Cardinal Wolsey and given to Henry VIII. It is stated to have been planted in 1769, and to have produced 2,272 bunches of grapes in a season, weighing over 2,000 pounds; its stem being thirteen inches in girth. Graph. Names ending in graphs are as follows. The list is given for the convenience of those in search of a word:— Actinograph.Ichnograph. Anaglyptograph.Kinograph. Anemograph.Lithograph. Arcograph.Magnetograph. Anto-chronograph.Marigraph. Auto-typograph.Mechanograph. Barograph.
F. Wollaston (search for this): chapter 7
line form of the diamond is octohedral, and the faces are usually convex. Upon this latter peculiarity, according to Dr. Wollaston, its efficiency depends, the rounded edge slightly indenting the glass and then slightly separating its particles, foere followed by plates of gold attached to the tortoise-shell nibs. Doughty's pens were of gold with ruby points. Wollaston's pens were of two flat strips of gold tipped with rhodium. In 1851, the Birmingham Exhibition in London showed goldickness of the silver at first and shares all its mutations in the drawing, retaining the same relative thickness. Dr. Wollaston, a man of extraordinary tact in delicate experiments, made the finest wire on record. He bored out a rod of silver, essively in line with the directions of the two sides of the crystal, and the difference in the degrees is observed. Wollaston's reflecting goniometer consists of a graduated circle provided with a vernier reading to minutes. The axis of the cir
in of experimenters and then a line of practical developers. If the series is to be briefly stated, we shall give it thus; Dr. Clayton, Bishop Watson, Murdoch, Winsor, Clegg; a clergyman, a bishop, an engineer, an enthusiast, a mechanic. In 1726, Dr. Hales, in his work on Vegetable Statics, states that 158 grains of coal yieniture of the apartments on the morning subsequent to the illumination by the burning of the coal smoke. — Monthly Magazine, London, June 1, 1805. In 1803 – 4, Winsor lighted the Lyceum Theater and took out a patent for lighting streets by gas. He established the first gas-company. In 1804 – 5, Murdoch lighted the cotton-factory of Philips and Lee, Manchester, the light being estimated as equal to 3,000 candles. This was the largest undertaking up to that date. In 1807, Winsor lighted one side of Pall Mall, London; the first street lighting. Westminster Bridge was lighted in 1813. Houses of Parliament, London, in the same year. Streets o<
Winckelmann (search for this): chapter 7
belonging to Captain Henvey, and the hieroglyphics contain the name of a monarch who lived 1500 B. C. The Egyptians attained an excellence in the manufacture of counterfeit amethysts and other precious stones which has not been excelled, and Winckelmann considers their skill in all departments of vitreous art to be in advance of any succeeding age. They made glass of various colors, imitation pearls, and two films of glass were made to inclose gold plates. Glass-making in Egypt. Athena lathe to the exact shape required by the particular tint in each part of the picture; and when the picture is completed by this extremely slow process, the surface is ground down and polished. The two specimens of glass mosaic described by Winckelmann and Count Caylus, in the last century, seem to have been of a somewhat different kind, for they presented a complete picture on each surface. They consisted of colored glass fibers fitted together with the utmost exactness, and cemented by
nd the elasticity of the air assists in restoring the gun to its position when the loading is complete. Coughlan, 1870, has a cogged segment and weighted toggle which allow the gun to depress by the force of recoil. Taggart, 1863, has two guns on a cylindrical carriage which is on an axis reaching athwart the vessel. The gun beneath is in loading position below decks, while the one above is in firing position. The latter being fired, the axis is rotated and the guns change places. Winans, 1865, lifts his gun, carriage, and traverse into firing position by steam piston and cylinder beneath. Houel and Caillet have a system of levers which oscillate backwardly by the recoil, and in so doing bring into action a spring which afterward assists in restoring the gun to firing position. See also Coon, 1863; Foster, 1869. Wappich, 1863, has a toggle-joint and screw for elevation and depression. Also screws beneath the trunnions. In Moncrieff's gun-carriage (Fig. 2341) the
J. Gardiner Wilkinson (search for this): chapter 7
f Virginia and North Carolina, yield this metal. Gold operations in Egypt, 1700 B. C. The principal supplies of gold in the land of Egypt were derived from the gold mines in the desert of the Upper Country. Their position, according to Wilkinson, is still known to the Arabs, and is about southeast from Bahayreh, a village opposite the town of Edfou, at a distance of ten days journey. The gold lies in veins of quartz in the rocks bordering an inhospitable valley and its adjacent ravinenner, and the meal escaped at the space between the stones at the outer margin of their effective faces, as shown at Fig. 2315. Such a mill was the quern, common in Italy and Britain in Roman times and since. The ancient Egyptian mills, says Wilkinson, were of simple and rude construction. They consisted of two circular, horizontal stones, nearly flat; the lower one fixed, while the upper one, called the rekkab, or rider, in Arabic and Hebrew, turned on a pivot or shaft rising from the cent
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