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S. W. Wood (search for this): chapter 9
for slitting iron into bars for smiths' use by Godfrey Bochs. The change from the use of wood coal to that of mineral coal was only accomplished in England after a great many futile attempts. In the reign of Elizabeth, blast-furnaces were of sufficient size to produce from two to three tons of pig-iron per day by the use of charcoal. In the small works, the iron was made malleable before being withdrawn from the blast-furnace, and in larger works was treated by the refinery-furnace. Wood becoming scarce, and a number of furnaces having gone out of blast, in 1612, Simon Sturtevant was granted a patent for thirty-one years for the use of pit-coal in smelting iron. Failing in his proposed plans, he rendered up his patent the following year. The patent was granted in 1613 to John Ravenson, who also failed, and resigned his patent, which was again and again granted to succeeding inventors and adventurers who believed themselves possessed of the means and knowledge for accompli
A. B. Wilson (search for this): chapter 9
braces, formed with dovetails and forelocks. The ribs are covered with cast-iron plates, and the railing to the sides was of iron. Dimensions of some of the principal Cast-Iron Bridges. Date.Place.River.No. of Spans.Span. Feet.Rise. Feet.Weight. Tons.Architect. 1779CoalbrookdaleSevern1100.545378 5 English tons of 2,240 pounds.Darby & Wilkinson. 1795BuildwasSevern113027173.9 English tons of 2,240 pounds.Telford. 1796SunderlandWear.124030260 English tons of 2,240 pounds.Wilson. 1818Southwark c, Fig. 2701. Thames3240 And two side arches of 210 feet span each.245,308 English tons of 2,240 pounds.Rennie. 1836 Carrousel Scine318715.5Poloncean. 1859TarasconRhone204 416.6 1854St. PetersburgNeva15013.8 New BlackfriarsThames5185 And four spans of 155, 175, 175, 155 feet; roadway and sidewalk, 75 feet wide.17 Georgetown Aqueduct Two cast-iron pipes having a water-way of 42 inches, arched in form, carrying the roadway and forming conduits for the water su
C. Wye Williams (search for this): chapter 9
was built in 1831. She was 70 feet long, 13 feet beam, and 6 1/2 feet deep. When launched she drew 9 inches of water; when equipped she drew 40 inches. She was navigated to the scene of her exploits, twice ascended the river, and her ribs upon the strand of Clarence Cove were visible but a few years since, and may yet remain. Her engines were 16 horse-power. Her weight, without engine, 33,600 pounds. The Garry Owen was the first iron vessel with water-tight bulkheads; suggested by C. W. Williams. See bulkhead. Iron vessels for America, Ireland, France, India, and China were built in Scotland and on the Mersey, 1833-39. The iron steam-vessels Nemesis and Phlegethon were used in the villainous Opium War of 1842. They were not the last vessels built on the Clyde for piratical expeditions. The Ironsides was the first iron sailing vessel of any magnitude employed for sea voyages. The Great Britain, built at Liverpool, was the boldest effort in iron shipbuilding in her
John Wilkinson (search for this): chapter 9
nt of iron. The sites are in the vicinity of Mt. Sinai, and it is proposed to work over the debris of the former workings. Of the first use of iron in Egypt, Wilkinson says, we have no certain record. His surprise at the execution of the sculptures is very natural, but he does not appear to have estimated the character of the . The first built in England was an arch of castiron sections, erected in 1779 over the Severn, at Coalbrookdale, Shropshire, England, by Abraham Darby and John Wilkinson. It had five ribs, each cast in two pieces, secured where they join at the crown of the arch by a cast-iron key-plate, and connected together horizontally an Date.Place.River.No. of Spans.Span. Feet.Rise. Feet.Weight. Tons.Architect. 1779CoalbrookdaleSevern1100.545378 5 English tons of 2,240 pounds.Darby & Wilkinson. 1795BuildwasSevern113027173.9 English tons of 2,240 pounds.Telford. 1796SunderlandWear.124030260 English tons of 2,240 pounds.Wilson. 1818Southwark c,
Jeremiah Wilkinson (search for this): chapter 9
om the copperplate on a flexible strap covered with a strong gelatinous mixture of glue and treacle. This strap is then pressed on the ware, and gives the impression in glue; the coloring powder is then dusted over it, and a sufficient portion adheres to the damp parts to give the pattern, after having been again in the kiln. The more elaborate patterns on earthenware, and all those on porcelain, are finished by penciling in. Iron Ves′sel. The first iron boat was built in 1787, by J. Wilkinson, of Bradley Forge, England. It was 70 feet long, 6 feet 8 1/2 inches beam. The plates were 5/16 inch, secured by rivets. The stem and stern-post were of wood, the beams of elm planks. Her weight was 8 tons, capacity 32 tons; she drew 8 to 9 inches of water when light, and plied on the Birmingham Canal. An iron pleasure-boat was launched on the Mersey in 1815 by T. Jevous of Liverpool. It was scuttled by jealous shipbuilders, and an iron life-boat launched by the same person in 181
H. F. Wheeler (search for this): chapter 9
Sulphate of baryta and albumen rolled into sheets. Billiard-balls made of a mixture of paper pulp, sulphate of baryta, and gelatine, are said to be equal to those made of ivory. Plaster of paris saturated with melted spermaceti. The following United States patents bear upon this subject; the figures are day, month, year: — Welling4, 8, 1857.Seeley23, 6, 1868. Held4, 8, 1857.Welling5, 5, 1868. Hackert31, 5, 1864.Cradenwitz25, 5, 1869. Dupper1865.Hyatt and Blake4, 5, 1869. Wheeler14, 11, 1865.Welling20, 4, 1869. Wurtz1, 1, 1867.Welling27, 4, 1869. Hackert19, 2, 1867.Welling27, 4, 1869. Starr3, 3, 1868.Hyatt6, 4, 1869. Starr and Welling9, 6, 1868.Hyatt6, 4, 1869. Hyatt14, 4, 1868.Hyatt15, 6, 1869. Gardner7, 1, 1868.Welling17, 1, 1870. I′vo-ry-black. A species of bone-black made by the calcination of ivory scraps, turnings, and sawdust. It is used as a pigment in the manufacture of paints and printers' ink. I′vo-ry-pa′per. A superior article of pas
Wheatstone (search for this): chapter 9
ived a complicated instrument on this principle, in which a separate circuit and needle was employed for each letter and numeral, 36 needles being employed, each being excited by a current of electricity as the occasion required. Cooke and Wheatstone's indicator-telegraph, patented June 12, 1837, is the most prominent and best example of this class of instruments, and is generally used in England. America and the continent of Europe employ the much superior system of Professor Morse, introduced about the same time. C is a front and D a rear view of Wheatstone's instrument. In this the right and left hand terminals a b of the multiplier are each connected to the linewire, which is, when a message is not being transmitted, thrown out of connection with the local battery. The circuit is opened and closed by means of a drum c, at each end of which is a stout steel wire forming respectively the positive and negative poles of the battery; these wires, on turning the drum, are
P. H. Vander Weyde (search for this): chapter 9
ng in details, are specified in the patent. In Siebe's apparatus an air-pump is employed to vaporize the ether, the vapor of which is then conveyed into the refrigerator, which is surrounded with strong brine. The water to be made into ice is put in metallic troughs, and the brine surrounding them is, by means of the exhaustive process above referred to, cooled down to from 10° to 18° Fah., freezing the water to a depth determined by the time it is subjected to the process. In Van der Weyde's machine are employed an exhaust and force pump, a cooling coil, and two refrigerators, which act as reservoirs for the condensed liquid. Naphtha, gasoline, rhigoline, or chimogene, are preferred. These are evaporated by an air-pump and forced through a freezer, in which are vessels containing water, surrounded by enclosing vessels filled with glycerine, the outside being surrounded by cryogene. The evaporation of the cryogene causes the refrigeration of the water to a sufficient extent
Joseph Wells (search for this): chapter 9
ich pits or excavations twenty or thirty feet square and two feet deep are sunk, the floors being covered with dry stalks of corn or sugar-cane. Upon these are placed the water-vessels, constructed of porous earthenware, and not much more than an inch deep. In the morning, if the sky has been clear, the vessels are found to contain thin plates of ice, which are carefully gathered and stored away. This process was successfully imitated in England in the latter part of the last century by Dr. Wells, author of the Essay on Dew; and soon afterward an attempt was made in France to employ it for the systematic manufacture of ice, but the undertaking proved to be economically a failure. Many of the modern ice-machines depend upon the conversion of sensible heat into latent by evaporation, liquids which vaporize at low temperatures being selected. Harrison's Australian machine used ether evaporating into a partial vacuum produced by an air-pump, and instead of acting directly upon th
fairly combined, take out, hang up to dry, and polish. Welling's artificial ivory is composed of 10 ounces of white shell upon this subject; the figures are day, month, year: — Welling4, 8, 1857.Seeley23, 6, 1868. Held4, 8, 1857.Welling5, 5, Welling5, 5, 1868. Hackert31, 5, 1864.Cradenwitz25, 5, 1869. Dupper1865.Hyatt and Blake4, 5, 1869. Wheeler14, 11, 1865.Welling20, 4, 18Welling20, 4, 1869. Wurtz1, 1, 1867.Welling27, 4, 1869. Hackert19, 2, 1867.Welling27, 4, 1869. Starr3, 3, 1868.Hyatt6, 4, 1869. Starr andWelling27, 4, 1869. Hackert19, 2, 1867.Welling27, 4, 1869. Starr3, 3, 1868.Hyatt6, 4, 1869. Starr and Welling9, 6, 1868.Hyatt6, 4, 1869. Hyatt14, 4, 1868.Hyatt15, 6, 1869. Gardner7, 1, 1868.Welling17, 1, 1870. I′vo-ry-blWelling27, 4, 1869. Starr3, 3, 1868.Hyatt6, 4, 1869. Starr and Welling9, 6, 1868.Hyatt6, 4, 1869. Hyatt14, 4, 1868.Hyatt15, 6, 1869. Gardner7, 1, 1868.Welling17, 1, 1870. I′vo-ry-black. A species of bone-black made by the calcination of ivory scraps, turnings, and sawdust. It is used as a pigment in tWelling9, 6, 1868.Hyatt6, 4, 1869. Hyatt14, 4, 1868.Hyatt15, 6, 1869. Gardner7, 1, 1868.Welling17, 1, 1870. I′vo-ry-black. A species of bone-black made by the calcination of ivory scraps, turnings, and sawdust. It is used as a pigment in the manufacture of paints and printers' ink. I′vo-ry-pa′per. A superior article of pasteboard, with a finely prepared poWelling17, 1, 1870. I′vo-ry-black. A species of bone-black made by the calcination of ivory scraps, turnings, and sawdust. It is used as a pigment in the manufacture of paints and printers' ink. I′vo-ry-pa′per. A superior article of pasteboard, with a finely prepared polished surface, used by artists. Ainslie's process for making ivory-paper is as follows: — Digest four oun
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