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Gibralter (North Carolina, United States) (search for this): chapter 9
le Bridge Company. The bridge is 100 feet wide; the frame is entirely of iron, the flooring being iron joists covered with corrugated iron plates and asphate concrete, and granite blocks laid in cement. I′ron—cham′ber. (Puddling.) That portion of the puddling — furnace in which the iron is worked. The reverberatory-chamber, charge-chamber. I′ron-clad Ves′sel. One having the exposed portion of the hull protected, in whole or in part, by a covering of iron. At the siege of Gibraltar in 1782, the French and Spaniards employed floating batteries, made by covering the sides of ships with junk, rawhides, and green timber to the thickness of seven feet, and bomb-proofing the decks. The largest of these vessels was 1,400 tons burden; their armament was 32-pounders, and they were manned by 500 men. They had furnaces for heating shot. These vessels were finally set on fire by red-hot shot. In 1813, Fulton constructed a steam floating-battery for the United States.
Barre (Vermont, United States) (search for this): chapter 9
rom the surface of ice which is to be cut and stored for use. Ice-shav′er. A device for planing ice to cool a beverage in a tumbler. Ice-Shaver. Ice-spade. A tool for cutting ice. See m, Fig. 2658, ice-tools. Ice-tongs. Grasping implements for carrying blocks of ice; or, on a small scale, for handling pieces of ice at table. See j k, Fig. 2658. Ice-tools. Ice-tools. Fig. 2658 shows an assortment of cast-steel ice-tools made by Stafford, Holden & Co., of Barre, Vermont: — a is a marker.h, saw. b, cutter with guide.i, hatchet. c, a hand-cutter.j, hoisting-tongs. d, grapple.k, landing-tongs. e, striking-off bar.l, snow-planer. f, chisel-bar.m, ice-spade. g, hook and pick. Ich′no-graph. (Drawing.) A ground-plan; an orthograph is a front elevation, a scenograph a general view. I′dler. A cog-wheel (as at a) placed between two others to communicate the motion of one to the other. By its interposition they are caused to rotate in
Peru, Ind. (Indiana, United States) (search for this): chapter 9
ring works are to be found among the mountain regions of the world, where the grades are ascended by inclined planes. Among these may be cited some on the Callao, Lima, and Oroya Railway in Peru. The annexed engraving shows portions at Surco, the Parac, and San Bartolome, respectively. They are not air lines by any means. The grades are from 2 1/2 to 4 per cent (211 feet to the mile); curves are limited to 400 feet radius. Plan of inclined planes on the Callao, Lima, and Oroya Railway, Peru. Mr. Meiggs is doing a great work. The western slope of the Andes at this point has no timber, nor for fifty miles on the east side. Oroya is thirty miles east of the summit tunnel, which is 15,200 feet above the level of the sea. At this hight you cannot cook beans in an open vessel, as the boiling-point is not hot enough. The railroad buildings and bridges are of iron, and come from England, as do the rails; the ties are from Oregon, the locomotives and cars from the United States.
Hungary (Hungary) (search for this): chapter 9
mber a′, and by its pressure caused to open the valve and pass out through the compartment g of the head and through the pipe j to the cooler, in which it passes first through the pipes c′, and afterward through the pipes c′, and is thereby cooled. From the cooler the compressed air passes through the pipe m into the compartment n of the back cylinderhead e, whence it passes through the valve o into the expansion-chamber a′ of the cylinder during a porin the hydraulic machine of Chemnitz, Hungary (see page 28), in which air is highly compressed in a closed reservoir under a column of water. If a stop-cock in this reservoir be suddenly opened, the expanding air rushing out produces a degree of cold sufficient to freeze the drops of water which it brings with it into pellets of ice. Machines acting by expansion of air-envelope. Kirk's apparatus (English) was of this character; that is, it absorbed heat by the expansion of air when liberated after compression by suitable mechan
Egypt (Egypt) (search for this): chapter 9
dges. That in Luke no doubt was the ordinary hen's egg. The word, in the singular or plural, occurs but twice in the Old Testament, five times in the New. The business of egg-hatching is conducted by the Copts, who carry it on in Upper and Lower Egypt and pay a license to the government. A building containing from 12 to 24 ovens is called a maamal, and its charge is 150,000 eggs. An official report for 1831 gives for Lower Egypt 105 of these establishments, using 19,000,000 eggs, of whichLower Egypt 105 of these establishments, using 19,000,000 eggs, of which 13,000,--000 produce chickens. This saves the valuable time of 1,500,000 hens for three weeks of inactivity and several succeeding weeks of care and scratching, enabling them to devote their undivided attention to the other duties of maternity, egg-laying and cackling. The proprietors of an oven collect the eggs from the peasants in the vicinity. The eggs are placed on mats strewed with bran, and are changed to positions nearer to or farther from the heat of the firechamber till the expir
Louisville (Kentucky, United States) (search for this): chapter 9
n. 1860PlymouthHamoaze433 630 6TubularBrunel. 1855BoyneFoyle25032 6Lattice.McNeil. 1858Montreal See tubular bridge.St. Lawrence33031 8TubularStephenson. 1867CologneRhine31331Lattice. 1861DirschanVistula39840Lattice 1874St. Louis Two side arches of 497 feet each. See tubular-arch bridge.Mississippi351551 5Tubular arch Eads. 1886KuilinburgLeck9515 Clear span of main truss, 492 feet; also one span of 262 feet; seven of 187 feet each. See d, Fig. 2702.Level.LatticeMichaelis. Louisville Whole length, 5,294 feet; weight of iron, 8,723,000 pounds.Ohio29400LevelTruss The iron truss-girder bridge over the Tay in Scotland, about 1 1/4 miles west of Dundee, is to be 10,320 feet in length, and to have, commencing on the Fifeshire side, spans as follows: three spans of 60 feet, two of 70, twenty-two of 120, fourteen of 200, sixteen of 120, twenty-five of 66, one of 160, and six of 27 feet. The bridge will thus have eighty-nine spans, and has a hight of about 78 feet abov
Columbia (South Carolina, United States) (search for this): chapter 9
old line of the Pennsylvania Railroad by Hollidaysburg, the reader may have noticed and admired the inclined planes by which the summit and several other gradients were ascended; stationary engines at the summit of each grade hoisting or lowering the cars by means of ropes. The London and Blackwall Railway was operated in a similar manner, though the road was about level. The Portage Railway formerly occupied a nearly central position on the main line of the Pennsylvania Canal, between Columbia and Pittsburg, and extended from Hollidaysburg, on the eastern base, to Johnstown on the western base of the Alleghany Mountains, a distance of thirty-six miles; the total rise and fall on the whole length of the line being 2,571.19 feet. Of this hight, 2,007.02 feet were overcome by means of ten inclined planes, and 564.17 feet by the slight inclinations given to the parts of the railway which extend between these planes. The distance from Hollidaysburg to the summit-level is about ten mi
Pottsville (Pennsylvania, United States) (search for this): chapter 9
ast by the escaping hot gases of the blast-furnace. The Calder works, in 1831, demonstrated the needlessness of coking when hot blast is employed. Experiments in smelting with anthracite coal were tried at Mauch Chunk in 1820, in France in 1827, and in Wales successfully by the aid of Neilson's hot-blast ovens in 1837. The experiment at Mauch Chunk was repeated, with the addition of the hot blast, in 1838, 1839, and succeeded in producing about two tons per day. The Pioneer furnace at Pottsville was blown July, 1839. The first iron-works in America were established near Jamestown, Virginia, in 1619. In 1622, however, the works were destroyed, and the workmen, with their families, massacred by the Indians. The next attempt was at Lynn, Massachusetts, on the banks of the Saugus, in 1648. The ore used was the bog ore, still plentiful in that locality. At these works Joseph Jenks, a native of Hammersmith, England, in 1652, by order of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, coined s
Johnstown (Pennsylvania, United States) (search for this): chapter 9
lar manner, though the road was about level. The Portage Railway formerly occupied a nearly central position on the main line of the Pennsylvania Canal, between Columbia and Pittsburg, and extended from Hollidaysburg, on the eastern base, to Johnstown on the western base of the Alleghany Mountains, a distance of thirty-six miles; the total rise and fall on the whole length of the line being 2,571.19 feet. Of this hight, 2,007.02 feet were overcome by means of ten inclined planes, and 564.17 feet by the slight inclinations given to the parts of the railway which extend between these planes. The distance from Hollidaysburg to the summit-level is about ten miles, and the hight is 1,398.31 feet. The distance from Johnstown to the same point is about twenty-six miles, and the hight 1,172.88 feet. The hight of the summit-level of the railway above the mean level of the Atlantic is 2,326 feet. The machinery by which the inclined planes were Inclined plane of Mahonoy, Pennsylvania (
New Jersey (New Jersey, United States) (search for this): chapter 9
inclined plane has a steam-engine on the summit, which, by means of a drum and chain, hauls up the cradle containing the boat. The lifts are worked by one attendant, who can raise or lower a boat from one level to another. There are two lock-chambers, over which is a lofty frame, having large wheels and chains, by which are suspended the cradles, into which the boats are floated when they are to be raised or lowered. See lift. On the Morris and Essex Canal, which crosses the State of New Jersey, connecting the Hudson and Delaware Rivers, there are, or were, 13 inclined planes, up which the canal-boats are hauled, the grades being thus ascended and descended without locking. The summit level at Stanhope is 900 feet above tide-water, and the changes of grade are sudden and frequent. A track of heavy rails is laid on the inclined plane, which has a grade of about 15°, and on this the cradle containing the boat ascends at the rate of five or six miles an hour. At the summit i
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