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Tennessee (Tennessee, United States) (search for this): chapter 2.23
s will illustrate the procedure: On May 16th, L. S. Frost, a white teacher in Tennessee, was taken at night from his room by a mob of disguised young men and carriedfied before the Congressional Committee that his estimate of their numbers in Tennessee alone exceeded 40,000. The latter part of the year 1868, before the electipulse. In the northern part of Alabama, along the border between Alabama and Tennessee, now and then there was trouble between the races. But, said our representative, this is attributed to incursions of Ku-Klux coming from Tennessee where, in remote localities, the organization is kept up for political effect, rather than for the bitter strife of former years. But Tennessee herself was at this time comparatively clear of any active operations of the Ku-Klux Klan. From Kentucky, howeveroffenders. Such affairs, thus ending, became stepping-stones to progress. Tennessee in its middle and western sections was the leader in this Ku-Klux business.
Edgefield (Tennessee, United States) (search for this): chapter 2.23
logged Franklin, each man giving him five blows. After that, taking Dunlap to another place, with the same parade, they performed the same operation, badly lacerating his body. After directing him to leave the city the next day, they released him. Dunlap not at once complying with their demand, they served upon him a formal notice, sent in the form of an unstamped letter through the post office, ordering him to leave by July 15th, or he would be burned to death. Dunlap thereupon went to Nashville and remained two months. Then he came back. He was visited again after his return, but was now prepared with a guard. While the Ku-Klux were hallooing that they wanted Dunlap and fried meat and were approaching his residence, the guard fired upon them. The band retreated and did not appear in Shelbyville again. A school building was burned at Carthage, Tenn., by incendiaries; and at Somerville, Saulsbury, Pocahontas, and in numerous other country places the schools were completely br
Gonzales, Gonzales County, Texas (Texas, United States) (search for this): chapter 2.23
were dropped into cisterns, and other such petty annoyances frequently took place to worry him. Yet with the courage and perseverance of a hero, he kept on, and planted many flourishing schools. The pros and cons of Texas society were shown at Gonzales. A Hungarian teacher of good ability and character was set upon by a small night detachment of six of these Regulators, well disguised and armed with revolvers. They beat him, they took him to the river and immersed him, with threats of drowning. The postmaster, a truly brave Southern man, successfully came to his relief, and the white citizens of Gonzales assembled and passed resolutions against the outrage, and promised the utmost aid and support to the town officers for the discovery, apprehension, and punishment of the offenders. Such affairs, thus ending, became stepping-stones to progress. Tennessee in its middle and western sections was the leader in this Ku-Klux business. The most heinous crimes occurred just before an
Rock Spring (Kentucky, United States) (search for this): chapter 2.23
a colored youth, though threatened by the Ku-Klux Klan with violence and death if he did not yield to their commands, made himself a brush arbor and there continued his school to the end of the term. Before the November election (the freedmen's first national suffrage) the Ku-Klux, armed and masked as usual, at night paraded the streets of several cities, and filled the freedmen with terror. Similar detachments boldly roamed over large districts of country outside of the cities. At Rock Spring, Ky., the Ku-Klux, estimated fifty strong, came at ten o'clock at night, seized the teacher, James Davis, a native of the place, an able and respected colored man, and ordered him to leave the country. His fine school building was reduced to ashes. On October 21, 1868, a host of these Regulators set upon a negro assembly at Cadiz, which a Bureau messenger, Mr. P. S. Reeves, was visiting and addressing. The Regulators stoned the building and dispersed the negroes. Some of the rush shout
Sabine (Louisiana, United States) (search for this): chapter 2.23
and language, and threats against the teacher posted; she was insulted on the ferry and in the streets, and even annoyed in such a small way as to be required to pay twice as much ferriage as the teachers in the white schools. In Markville, the Ku-Klux Klan made more open demonstrations, but always by night. They posted their documents around the town, so terrifying the colored people that they did not dare leave their homes after dark. The night schools had to be closed. At Mary and Sabine parish; at Cherryville and Rapides parish; at Washington and Opelousas; at St. Landry parish, and elsewhere in a similar way by visitations and threats the schools were shut up and the teachers driven off. In Texas, both at Georgetown and Circleville, the schools were similarly closed out; at the latter place the school edifice was burned to the ground. Mrs. Baldwin, the teacher at Bowling Green, Ky., was a Christian lady of agreeable manners and unusual culture, but not one of the twenty
Newberry, S. C. (South Carolina, United States) (search for this): chapter 2.23
bitter year, 1869, had in his communication from his district, consisting of Rowan, Iredell, Davie, and Yadkin counties, these sad words: Our situation is now more painful than it has ever been since we took up this notable cause of the freedmen. I mind my own business as closely as I can, but know no safety of life or property. South Carolina showed some eruptions of the same nature as late as December 24, 1869. A gentleman of good standing was building a large school structure at Newberry, S. C., for the education of the children of the freed people. He was visited by armed men and driven from the hotel where he was boarding, and a young lady teacher at the same place, sent by the Methodists from Vermont, was subjected to the meanest sort of insults and persecutions. Georgia, too, in this time of comparative quiet, furnished some instances of the action of the secret bands. In about half of the State Ku-Klux Klans, armed, disguised, roaming through country districts, commi
Aberdeen (Mississippi, United States) (search for this): chapter 2.23
, foully murdered at Meridian; of Aaron Moore banished and his house destroyed; of Mayor Sturgis driven from Meridian; of the father of Wesley Lee, pursued and finally assassinated; of teachers (April 21st) at Rouses Mills, Monroe county, and at Aberdeen, driven off from their schools by the Ku-Klux; of a colored man named Durham slain April 23d; of Tom Hornburger, a freedman, literally shot to pieces April 24th; the same night a schoolhouse burned, where a colored girl was teaching; of a postmaster at Aberdeen, a Southern Republican, ordered to change his politics; at Athens, Mississippi, of Alex Page, colored, (March 29) taken out of his house and hanged; near Hood's Church, of another freedman shot and killed, about twelve miles from a station of some of our troops. A Ku-Klux letter of notification ran: We can inform you that we are the law itself, and that an order from these headquarters is supreme above all others. I closed an itemized account in a letter to the Secretary o
Georgia (Georgia, United States) (search for this): chapter 2.23
ut know no safety of life or property. South Carolina showed some eruptions of the same nature as late as December 24, 1869. A gentleman of good standing was building a large school structure at Newberry, S. C., for the education of the children of the freed people. He was visited by armed men and driven from the hotel where he was boarding, and a young lady teacher at the same place, sent by the Methodists from Vermont, was subjected to the meanest sort of insults and persecutions. Georgia, too, in this time of comparative quiet, furnished some instances of the action of the secret bands. In about half of the State Ku-Klux Klans, armed, disguised, roaming through country districts, committed their atrocious outrages. The teacher, R. H. Gladding, was by them driven from Greensboro. The gentleman who boarded him, because he had harbored him, was taken from his house at night and unmercifully scourged. Abram Colby (colored) about this time being a member elect of the legisl
Rowan (North Carolina, United States) (search for this): chapter 2.23
ers became frightened, and, under the threats of violence printed on placards and put upon doors and fence posts, it was deemed best to obey the dread-inspiring foes that, many or few, were magnified by excited imaginations into multitudes. The marauders went in bands, always masked, usually in small squads, each squad having from five to ten in number. One of our best North Carolina workers near the close of this bitter year, 1869, had in his communication from his district, consisting of Rowan, Iredell, Davie, and Yadkin counties, these sad words: Our situation is now more painful than it has ever been since we took up this notable cause of the freedmen. I mind my own business as closely as I can, but know no safety of life or property. South Carolina showed some eruptions of the same nature as late as December 24, 1869. A gentleman of good standing was building a large school structure at Newberry, S. C., for the education of the children of the freed people. He was visited
United States (United States) (search for this): chapter 2.23
ored men. Their lifeless bodies were found, but the secrets were so well kept that no guilty parties could be discovered. In some places negroes were taken out and whipped (as a rule by night) and there was no clew to the perpetrators. Even United States agents dared not hold a public meeting in that region-a gathering at night of negroes at any place would be regarded with suspicion by the whites and result in outrage and suffering to the blacks. The aspect of society in Arkansas in the sroes to so intimidate and terrorize them that they would not dare to vote except as their new masters directed. All my officers and agents were naturally involved in the dangers and sufferings of their wards. After Grant became President, United States military action against the Ku-Klux was very prompt and had much to do with causing the cessation of their outrages. But the end sought by those cruel associations had been obtained, first by their action and later by the counting of the bal
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