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Jefferson City (Missouri, United States) (search for this): chapter 9
tan as their leader or their conqueror, comprehended about eight thousand square miles, thirty tribes, and twenty-four hundred warriors, so that the Indian population amounted to about one inhabitant to a square mile. Smith, i. 129. Compare Jefferson's Notes, Quaere XI.; True Declaration of Virginia, 10. The extent of a hundred miles was scarce peopled with two thousand inhabitants. The natives, naked and feeble compared with the Europeans, were no where concentrated in considerable villagess of the controversy which now grew up between the monarch and the corporation; and the inhabitants of the colony were still more indifferent spectators of the strife, which related, not to their liberties, but to their immediate sovereign. Jefferson's Notes on Virginia, 152, 153. Besides, there was something of retributive justice in the royal proceedings. The present proprietors enjoyed their privileges in consequence of a wrong done to the original patentees, and now suffered no greate
Lyons, N. Y. (New York, United States) (search for this): chapter 9
the Slavonic nation to servitude itself; and every country of Western Europe still preserves in its language the record of the barbarous traffic in Slaves. Hune's Darstellung, i. 102 and ff. Nor did France abstain from the slave-trade. At Lyons and Verdun, the Jews were able to purchase slaves for their Saracen customers. Fischer, in Hune, i. 115 In Sicily, and perhaps in Italy, the children of Asia and Africa, in their turn, were exposed for sale. The people of the wilderness to bondage. All Africans were esteemed as Moors. The amelioration of the customs of Europe had Chap. V.} proceeded from the influence of religion. It was the clergy who had broken up the Christian slave-markets at Bristol and at Hamburg, at Lyons and at Rome. At the epoch of the discovery of America, the moral opinion of the civilized world had abolished the traffic in Christian slaves, and was fast demanding the emancipation of the serfs: but bigotry had favored a compromise with avaric
North America (search for this): chapter 9
shores of the Atlantic, or among the Indians of the Mississippi valley, Cortereal and Vasquez de Chap. V.} Ayllon, Porcallo and Soto, with private adventurers. whose names and whose crimes may be left unrecorded, transported the natives of North America into slavery in Europe and the Spanish West Indies. The glory of Columbus himself did not escape the stain; enslaving five hundred native Americans, he sent them 1494. to Spain, that they might be publicly sold at Seville. Irving's Colum49. of the slaves which the new kingdoms might contain. The slavery of Indians was 1501. recognized as lawful. See a cedula on a slave contract, in Navarette, III. 514, 515, given June 20, 1501. The practice of selling the natives of North America into foreign bondage continued for nearly two centuries; and even the sternest morality pronounced the sentence of slavery and exile on the captives whom the field of battle had spared. The excellent Winthrop enumerates Indians among his beq
Tunisia (Tunisia) (search for this): chapter 9
. Coll. III. 49—53, and 103—105 that negroes might still further be employed to perform the severe toils which they alone could endure. The avarice of the Flemings greedily seized on the expedient; the board of trade at Seville was consulted, to learn how many slaves Chap. V.} would be required. It had been proposed to allow four for each Spanish emigrant; deliberate calculation fixed the number esteemed necessary at four thousand. The year in which Charles V. led an expedition against Tunis, to check the piracies of the Barbary states, and to emancipate Christian slaves in Africa, he gave an open sanction to the African slave trade. The sins of the Moors were to be revenged on the negroes; and the monopoly for eight years of annually importing four thousand slaves into the West Indies, was eagerly seized by La Bresa, a favorite of the Spanish monarch, and was sold to the Genoese, who purchased their cargoes of Portugal. We shall, at a later period, observe a stipulation for t
Jamestown, N. Y. (New York, United States) (search for this): chapter 9
rrows as they could shape without the use of iron, such hatchets as could be made from stone; and an English mastiff seemed to them a terrible adversary. Smith, II. 68. Stith, 211. Nor were their numbers considerable. Within sixty miles of Jamestown, it is computed, there were no movie than five thousand souls, or about fifteen hundred warriors. The whole territory of the clans which listened to Powhatan as their leader or their conqueror, comprehended about eight thousand square miles, t groundwork of the narrative in Smith, II. 65—76, and of Purchas, IV. 1788—1791. Stith, 208—213. The night before the execution of the conspiracy, it Chap V.} 1622 was revealed by a converted Indian to an Englishman whom he wished to rescue; Jamestown and the nearest settlements were well prepared against an attack; and the savages, as timid as they were ferocious, fled with precipitation from the appearance of wakeful re distance. Thus the larger part of the colony was save State of Vir<
Seville (Spain) (search for this): chapter 9
ing anticipated the Portuguese in introducing negroes into Europe. Navarette, Introduccion, s. XIX. The merchants of Seville imported gold dust and slaves from the western Chap V.} coast of Africa; Prescott's Ferdinand and Isabella. and negrpe the stain; enslaving five hundred native Americans, he sent them 1494. to Spain, that they might be publicly sold at Seville. Irving's Columbus, b. VIII. c. v. The generous Isabella commanded the liberation of 1500. the Indians held in bond of slavery, already riveted, was not long restrained by the scruples of men in power. King Ferdinand himself sent from Seville 1510. fifty slave Herrera, d. i. l. VIII. c. IX. to labor in the mines; and, because it was said, that one negro coils which they alone could endure. The avarice of the Flemings greedily seized on the expedient; the board of trade at Seville was consulted, to learn how many slaves Chap. V.} would be required. It had been proposed to allow four for each Spani
Sinai (Egypt) (search for this): chapter 9
iest glimpses of Egyptian history exhibit pictures of bondage; the oldest monuments of human labor on the Egyptian soil are evidently the results of slave labor. The founder of the Jewish nation was a slave-holder and a purchaser of slaves. Every patriarch was lord in his own household. Gen. XII. 16; XVII. 12; XXXVII. 28. The Hebrews, when they burst the bands of their Chap. V.} own thraldom, carried with them beyond the desert the institution of slavery. The light that broke from Sinai scattered the corrupting illusions of polytheism; but slavery planted itself even in the promised land, on the banks of Siloa, near the oracles of God. The Hebrew father might doom his daughter to bondage; the wife, and children, and posterity of the emancipated slave, remained the property of the master and his heirs; and if a slave, though mortally wounded by his master, did but languish of his wounds for a day, the owner escaped with impunity; for the slave was his master's money. It is
Worcester (Massachusetts, United States) (search for this): chapter 9
. 4, 5. Hammond's Leah and Rachel, 7. In 1672, the average price in the colonies, where five years of service were due, was about ten pounds; while a negro was worth twenty or twenty-five pounds. Blome's Jamaica, 84 and 16. So usual was this manner of dealing in Englishmen, that not the Scots only, who were taken in the field of Dunbar, were sent into involuntary servitude in New England, Cromwell and Cotton, in Hutchinson's Coll. 233—235. but the royalist prisoners of the battle of Worcester; Suffolk County Records, i. 5 and 6. The names of two hundred and seventy are recorded. The lading of the John and Sarah was ironwork, household stuff, and other provisions for planters and Scotch prisoners. Recorded May 14, 1652. and the leaders in the insurrection of Penruddoc, Burton's Diary, IV. 262. 271. 5 Stith, 171. Godwin's Commonwealth, IV. 172. in spite of the remonstrance of Haselrig and Chap. V.} Henry Vane, were shipped to America. At the corresponding period, in
Hamburg, Tenn. (Tennessee, United States) (search for this): chapter 9
tian the wonted booty of the successful corsair Servitude was thus the doom of the Christian in Northern Africa: the hatred of the Moorish dominion extending to all Africa, an indiscriminate and retaliating bigotry felt no remorse at dooming the sons of Africa to bondage. All Africans were esteemed as Moors. The amelioration of the customs of Europe had Chap. V.} proceeded from the influence of religion. It was the clergy who had broken up the Christian slave-markets at Bristol and at Hamburg, at Lyons and at Rome. At the epoch of the discovery of America, the moral opinion of the civilized world had abolished the traffic in Christian slaves, and was fast demanding the emancipation of the serfs: but bigotry had favored a compromise with avarice; and the infidel was not yet included within the pale of humanity. Yet negro slavery is not an invention of the white man. As Greeks enslaved Greeks, as the Hebrew often consented to make the Hebrew his absolute lord, as Anglo-Saxons
Hampshire (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 9
es; and even the sternest morality pronounced the sentence of slavery and exile on the captives whom the field of battle had spared. The excellent Winthrop enumerates Indians among his bequests. Winthrop's N. E., II. 360. The articles of the early New England confederacy class persons among the spoils of war. A scanty remnant of the Pequod tribe Winthrop's N. E., i. 234. in Connecticut, the captives treacher- Chap V.} ously made by Waldron in New Hampshire, Belknap's Hist. of N. Hampshire, i. 75, Farmer's edition. the harmless fragments of the tribe of Annawon, Baylies' Plymouth, III. 190. the orphan offspring of King Philip himself, Davis, on Morton's Memorial, 454, 455. Baylies' Plymouth, III. 190, 191. were all doomed to the same hard destiny of perpetual bondage. The clans of Virginia and Carolina, Hening, i. 481, 482. The act, forbidding the crime, proves, what is indeed undisputed, its previous existence. Lawson's Carolina. Charmers, 542. for more than
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