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June 1st, 1800 AD (search for this): chapter 9
. 3. An instrument for inhaling or inwardly applying medicated vapors or anaesthetic agents. 4. An apparatus to enable a fireman, miner, or diver to work in a poisonous or heated atmosphere, or in water, carrying with him a supply of vital air. See diving. Inhalers. Dr. Priestley's letter, speaking of Gaseous oxyd of Septon (dephlogisticated nitrous air), was addressed to one of the editors of the New York Medical repository, and was republished in the London Monthly magazine, June 1, 1800. Chloroform was discovered by Guthrie, Souberain, or Liebig, about 1831, but its valuable properties as an anaesthetic were not appreciated until 1847. Dr. Morton of Boston, and Professor Simpson of Edinborough, discovered its applicability to this purpose almost simultaneously in 1847. See ANAeSTHETIC apparatus. Morton's inhalation apparatus, November 13, 1847, has a chamber to hold the sponge, and two lateral openings through which respectively enter the atmospheric air and pas
d two side arches of 210 feet span each.245,308 English tons of 2,240 pounds.Rennie. 1836 Carrousel Scine318715.5Poloncean. 1859TarasconRhone204 416.6 1854St. PetersburgNeva15013.8 New BlackfriarsThames5185 And four spans of 155, 175, 175, 155 feet; roadway and sidewalk, 75 feet wide.17 Georgetown Aqueduct Two cast-iron pipes having a water-way of 42 inches, arched in form, carrying the roadway and forming conduits for the water supply of Washington.Rock Creek120020Meigs. In 1801 Telford proposed a cast-iron bridge (a, Fig. 2701) of 600 feet span across the Thames, and 2701) in preference to the suspension-bridge of 570 feet span erected by him. Other forms of iron-bridges involve the use of wrought-iron, as in the examples a, b, c, Fig. 2702, which are combinations of the arch and truss. a is known as the rectangular tubular arch bridge. b, iron-arch and lattice-girder bridge. c, strut girder bridge. d. The Kuilinburg bridge over the Leck, an arm of th
February 1st, 1801 AD (search for this): chapter 9
A form of reaction water-wheel or turbine in which the water reaches the wheel from an outer encircling scroll and passes inward, discharging at the hollow center of the wheel. I—rail. A double-headed rail with flanges on each side above and below; on the foot and tread. See iron, angle. Iri-an-kis′tri-um. A hook-shaped instrument used in the operation for artificial pupil by separation. Ir-i-dec′tome. (Surgical.) A knife for operations on the eye. A journal of February 1, 1801, gives an account of an operation performed by Citizen Demours of Paris upon a left eye, five sixths of whose cornea was perfectly opaque. The only portion of the latter which remained pervious to light was on the upper part, and so high as to prevent any rays from passing thence through the pupil to the retina. To remedy this, the operation was conceived of cutting an opening through the pupil opposite to the luminous part of the cornea, which was accordingly performed by making a s
ising vapor withdraws from the water will presently reduce the temperature to the freezing-point, and the liquid will be converted into ice. In 1755, Dr. Cullen discovered that removing the pressure of air facilitated evaporation to a degree which enabled him to freeze water even in summer. In 1777, Mr. Nairne discovered that introducing sulphuric acid into an exhausted receiver absorbed an aqueous vapor from and thereby dried rarefied air; and by an arrangement on these principles, in 1810, by which he got rid of the vapor that rose from the water, he prevented its forming a permanent atmosphere, so as to prevent the continuance of the operation. Professor Leslie succeeded in freezing quantities of water from 1 to 1 1/2 pounds in weight, though he could not effect the congelation of much larger quantities. This method of promoting evaporation John Vallance, in 1824, improved by removing the atmospheric pressure, which enabled him to carry off the vapor from large surfaces of
as commonly used in blast-furnaces. In 1760 Smeaton erected at the Carron works the first large blowing cylinders, and shortly after Boulton and Watt supplied the steam-engines by which the blowers were driven. Peter Onions, in his patent of 1783, described the rationale of the puddling process; and Henry Cort, of Gosport, in 1784, made it practicable, and added grooved rolls, by which the puddled bar was drawn. Neilson, of Glasgow, introduced the hot blast in 1828. Aubulot, in France, in 1811, and Budd, in England, in 1845, heated the blast by the escaping hot gases of the blast-furnace. The Calder works, in 1831, demonstrated the needlessness of coking when hot blast is employed. Experiments in smelting with anthracite coal were tried at Mauch Chunk in 1820, in France in 1827, and in Wales successfully by the aid of Neilson's hot-blast ovens in 1837. The experiment at Mauch Chunk was repeated, with the addition of the hot blast, in 1838, 1839, and succeeded in producing abou
-press work. In power-presses, several rollers are employed, which are fed with ink from a trough, distributing it and transferring it to the inking-roller. The composition of glue and molasses was invented by Donkin and Bacon (English patent, 1813). It is stated to have been previously used by one Edward Dyas of Madeley, Shropshire, England, who was indebted to an accidental overturning of his glue-pot to the suggestion of using the lump of semi-hardened glue. Francis and Letmate's patenet, and bomb-proofing the decks. The largest of these vessels was 1,400 tons burden; their armament was 32-pounders, and they were manned by 500 men. They had furnaces for heating shot. These vessels were finally set on fire by red-hot shot. In 1813, Fulton constructed a steam floating-battery for the United States. The first application of iron for this purpose was by the French, during the Crimean war in 1855, to gunboats. These had a displacement of about 2,000 tons, were 172 feet in l
, and all those on porcelain, are finished by penciling in. Iron Ves′sel. The first iron boat was built in 1787, by J. Wilkinson, of Bradley Forge, England. It was 70 feet long, 6 feet 8 1/2 inches beam. The plates were 5/16 inch, secured by rivets. The stem and stern-post were of wood, the beams of elm planks. Her weight was 8 tons, capacity 32 tons; she drew 8 to 9 inches of water when light, and plied on the Birmingham Canal. An iron pleasure-boat was launched on the Mersey in 1815 by T. Jevous of Liverpool. It was scuttled by jealous shipbuilders, and an iron life-boat launched by the same person in 1817 experienced the same fate. The first iron steam-vessel launched and put to sea was projected and built for A. Manby of Staffordshire, for the river Seine, in 1821. She took in a cargo of linseed-oil and iron castings, and was navigated direct from London to Havre, and from that port proceeded to Paris, where she discharged her cargo. She navigated the Seine for m
lkinson, of Bradley Forge, England. It was 70 feet long, 6 feet 8 1/2 inches beam. The plates were 5/16 inch, secured by rivets. The stem and stern-post were of wood, the beams of elm planks. Her weight was 8 tons, capacity 32 tons; she drew 8 to 9 inches of water when light, and plied on the Birmingham Canal. An iron pleasure-boat was launched on the Mersey in 1815 by T. Jevous of Liverpool. It was scuttled by jealous shipbuilders, and an iron life-boat launched by the same person in 1817 experienced the same fate. The first iron steam-vessel launched and put to sea was projected and built for A. Manby of Staffordshire, for the river Seine, in 1821. She took in a cargo of linseed-oil and iron castings, and was navigated direct from London to Havre, and from that port proceeded to Paris, where she discharged her cargo. She navigated the Seine for many years, and may yet. The iron steamboat Alburkah, for the Lander Expedition up the Niger, was built in 1831. She was 70
June 21, 1864, consists of glue, 14 pounds; glycerine, 28 pounds; castor-oil, 2 1/4 pounds; borax, 3 ounces; ammonia, 2 ounces; sugar, 7 pounds. The endwise motion of the ink-distributing rollers is in the English patent of Professor Cowper, 1818. The diagonal arrangement of the inking-roller, to give it a relatively endwise motion to the inkingtable, is described in Applegath's English patent, 1823. Ink′ing-ta′ble. (Printing.) A table upon which ink is spread to be taken up by the inking-roller. The combination of inking-table, trough, and hand-roller was invented by Professor Cowper, and was described in his English patent, 1818. In his printing-machine, the inking-table passed back and forth under rollers which received an end motion at the same time by means of an indentation along the edge of the table acting upon a frame in which the rollers were mounted. In Applegath's English patent, 1823, the rollers are placed diagonally across the table and receive <
At least one natural ice-house has been discovered on Mount Etna, where a vast deposit of snow, covered by a mass of ashes and lava, has been preserved for untold ages. The highest natural temperature authentically recorded was at Bagdad, in 1819, when the themometer in the shade indicated 120° Fah. On the west coast of Africa the heat is nearly as great. The men employed in the English expedition to Abyssinia think that Aden is the hottest hole on earth. Burckhardt, in Egypt, and Humbator-card. A card containing a diagram drawn by the working steam by means of an indicator (which see). In′di-cator-tel′e-graph. An electric telegraph in which the signals are given by the deflections of a magnetic needle. It was about 1819 that Oersted of Denmark made the discovery that if a magnetic needle, free to turn about its center, were placed near to and parallel with a wire, then, on causing an electric current to pass through this wire, the needle would be deflected to an
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