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Browsing named entities in a specific section of The Photographic History of The Civil War: in ten volumes, Thousands of Scenes Photographed 1861-65, with Text by many Special Authorities, Volume 7: Prisons and Hospitals. (ed. Francis Trevelyan Miller). Search the whole document.

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October, 1864 AD (search for this): chapter 1.3
popular just after the war. There exist two documents, one a report of Lieutenant-Colonel D. T. Chandler, who inspected the prison in August, 1864, and the report of Doctor Joseph Jones, who spent several weeks at the prison in September and October, 1864. These set forth clearly and dispassionately conditions as they actually existed, and from them we are able to reconstruct the prison scene. Here is the stockade, as Doctor Jones saw it in September, even after the worst of the crowding was Prisoners ate with avidity acorns from the great oaks in the yard, for want of better food. The soil was a stiff, red clay, which under the rain and the tramp of thousands of feet became tenacious mortar. The mortality was fearful, as from October, 1864, to February, 1865, inclusive, there were 3419 deaths. The burial place near by was an abandoned field in which long pits about four feet deep, six feet wide, and sixty yards long were dug. No coffins could be furnished, as it was impossible
October 12th, 1864 AD (search for this): chapter 1.3
Before the 25th of November the prisoners had left Camp Lawton, and during the remainder of the war it was not occupied by any considerable number. A part of the Andersonville prisoners were sent to Charleston, and these, together with some previously confined in that city, were removed to Florence, South Carolina. Before a stockade was erected they were restrained in an open field with such an inefficient guard that many escaped. The report of General Hardee's inspecting officer, October 12, 1864, says that three-fourths were without blankets, and many almost without clothing. The hospitals were of boughs of trees, and only one medical officer was on duty. There was no longer a pretense of issuing meat, but, instead, sorghum molasses was substituted, and even this was not always forthcoming. The stockade was built from the trunks of trees set about five feet into the ground, enclosing about twenty-three acres sloping down from each end to a stream in the center. When the s
November, 1864 AD (search for this): chapter 1.3
the Union States was ordered without warrants on a simple order from the State or War Department, but chiefly the former. President Lincoln had claimed the right to suspend the writ of habeas corpus. Commanders of such prisons as the above were instructed to refuse to allow themselves to be served with writs; or either to decline to appear or to appear and courteously refuse to carry out the instruction of the court. About ten thousand prisoners from Savannah were sent here early in November, 1864. On the whole, the food supply was better here than at Andersonville, or at least more fresh meat was served, but many of these men had been a long time in prison. Surgeon Isaiah H. White, in appealing for money for his hospital, says, Humanity and the fame of the Government demand that the extreme suffering among the prisoners be alleviated. The reply to his appeal was simply that there was no money in the Confederate treasury for any purpose. With the approach of Sherman's army, th
November 1st, 1864 AD (search for this): chapter 1.3
the middle distance, while almost the entire space in front is covered with tents under which a considerable part of the Confederate prisoners were accommodated until the winter. The Elmira Prison was opened in May, 1864. Before the end of August the prisoners there numbered almost ten thousand. Conditions here were always bad, partly on account of the insufficient shelter, and partly because of a feud between the commandant and surgeon. The latter, E. F. Sanger, wrote under date of November 1, 1864, to Brigadier-General J. K. Barnes, Surgeon-General of the United States Army: Since August there have been 2,011 patients admitted to the hospital, 775 deaths out of a mean strength of 8,347 prisoners of war, or twenty-four per cent. admitted and nine per cent. died. Have averaged daily 451 in hospital and 601 in quarters, an aggregate of 1,052 per day sick. At this rate the entire command will be admitted to hospital in less than a year and thirty-six per cent. die. This was due to
December 4th, 1864 AD (search for this): chapter 1.3
n this prison were generally good, although the prisoners from the Gulf States suffered intensely from the cold winds from Lake Erie. Some of them froze on the terrible New Year's Day of 1864. here were unsatisfactory, partly because of a feud between the surgeon and the commandant. The sick-rate was high. The barracks could accommodate less than half the prisoners sent here and tents were used by the remainder well on into the winter, though the weather became intensely cold. On December 4, 1864, the inspecting officer reports that both meat and flour were bad and that 1166 of the prisoners had not even one blanket. The cold winds seemed especially severe upon the prisoners from the Gulf States, who, thinly clad and poorly nourished, were especially susceptible to pneumonia. The death-record furnished the commissary-general of prisoners shows for the winter of 1864– 65 an average death-rate of five per cent. a month. The next class, that in which tents were used for shelte
is most famous of all prisons while in Confederate hands The negative of this war-time photograph of Libby Prison was destroyed in the Richmond conflagration of 1865. Positives from this negative, taken by Rees of Richmond inside the Confederate lines during the war, were never sold. Its publication in this history is its firs at some other prisons. A very expensive hospital was erected, paid for from the prison fund, which amounted to one hundred and seventy-five thousand dollars in 1865. Camp Douglas, in Chicago, was a large instruction and recruiting camp, of which the prison formed a comparatively small part. The Camp was on low ground, whicwarehouses, had been used, when this photograph was made, for the temporary confinement of Union soldiers captured during the numerous sorties of the winter of 1864-65. On account of the continual bombardment on both sides and the number of shots which fell within the town, the prisoners who languished within these walls called t
February, 1865 AD (search for this): chapter 1.3
h avidity acorns from the great oaks in the yard, for want of better food. The soil was a stiff, red clay, which under the rain and the tramp of thousands of feet became tenacious mortar. The mortality was fearful, as from October, 1864, to February, 1865, inclusive, there were 3419 deaths. The burial place near by was an abandoned field in which long pits about four feet deep, six feet wide, and sixty yards long were dug. No coffins could be furnished, as it was impossible to secure enough l Reserves, that is to say, boys under seventeen and men over forty-five, and later fifty, as all between those ages were supposed to be in the army. Some of the boys were almost infants and could hardly carry their heavy guns. Finally, in February, 1865, the commandant, Major Gee, was notified to send his prisoners to Wilmington for exchange. As it was impossible to procure transportation for all, those who were able started to march. Of twenty-eight hundred who began the journey only abou
March 13th, 1865 AD (search for this): chapter 1.3
h were a terror to the captured Confederates. Students of physiognomy will be interested in comparing the faces of the three men. B. F. Tracy entered the war as colonel of the 109th New York Infantry, August 28, 1862. He was honorably discharged May 10, 1864, and on September 10th of that year he was made colonel of the 127th United States Colored Infantry, and placed in charge of Elmira Prison, where the mortality was very high. He was appointed brevet brigadier-general of volunteers March 13, 1865. Brigadier-General Albin Schoepf, a Hungarian refugee, held the command of Fort Delaware until he was mustered out, January 15, 1866. No prison was so dreaded in the South as this, where the poorly constructed barracks, several feet below the level of high water, were always damp and cold. Fort Warren, for the greater part of the war, was under charge of Colonel (later Brigadier-General) Justin Dimick, an officer who graduated from the Military Academy October 18, 1814, served in the w
April, 1865 AD (search for this): chapter 1.3
John F. Iverson held command of the prison, and his kindness and humanity have A Confederate prison in Petersburg, April, 1865 This prison in Petersburg was known as Castle Thunder. When this photograph was taken, in April, 1865, for many moApril, 1865, for many months Confederate sentries had been pacing up and down where the Union sentry now stands with his gun at support arms. For months a succession of Union prisoners had gazed out longingly through the bars, listening to the Union guns which day after dmanity could not be carried out. Libby prison after the war—ruins in the foreground This photograph was taken in April, 1865, after the city had passed into the hands of the Federals. The near-by buildings had been destroyed, and the foregroubles were turned Confederate prisoners confined in the Southern stronghold In this dramatic record by the camera of April, 1865, appear Confederate captives pressing their faces against the bars through which one hundred and twenty-five thousand
April 3rd, 1865 AD (search for this): chapter 1.3
on the plan of the Maison-Carree at Nimes, could do little to alleviate their mental distress. The crest of the hill on which Major Turner is standing is one hundred and twelve feet above tidewater, overlooking the encampment. The guard and guard-tents appear in the distance at the edge of the river. This is the fourth successive war-time photograph taken inside the Confederate lines shown in this chapter. The original negative was destroyed by fire on the memorable morning of the 3rd of April, 1865. October more than two thousand were confined within the stockade surrounding the prison. The prisoners cooked their own food; the commissary seems not to have used proper diligence, and on account of lack of tools the enclosure was badly policed. The water supply was generally good, though at one time subject to pollution. The chief Federal prisons of this class were the Old Capitol at Washington, and the Gratiot Street Prison in St. Louis. After the burning of the Capitol by t
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