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Browsing named entities in a specific section of The Photographic History of The Civil War: in ten volumes, Thousands of Scenes Photographed 1861-65, with Text by many Special Authorities, Volume 7: Prisons and Hospitals. (ed. Francis Trevelyan Miller). Search the whole document.

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Savannah, Tenn. (Tennessee, United States) (search for this): chapter 1.4
obert Ould refused to deal with General Butler, when the latter was the Federal agent of exchange, on the ground that he had been proclaimed an outlaw by President Davis, and instead addressed all of his communications to Major Mulford. After General Grant stopped all exchanges, April 17, 1864, both General Butler and Major Mulford were bombarded with hysterical letters of appeal, abuse, and criticism. A few special exchanges were arranged after this time, and Major Mulford was ordered to Savannah to receive the thirteen thousand Federal sick and wounded delivered without full equivalent by Colonel Ould in the latter part of 1864. On July 4th of that year Major Mulford was advanced to brevet brigadier-general of volunteers for special service and highly meritorious conduct. He entered the war as captain in the Third New York Infantry May 14, 1861, and was promoted to major June 10, 1863, to lieutenant-colonel December 8, 1864, and to colonel April 9, 1865. He was honorably mustere
Norfolk (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 1.4
as to allow as few as possible. A glance at this hardy band of captured Confederate veterans here tells the reason why. There are a hundred fights in these men yet. Why let them return to the firing-line to combat Union soldiers anew? The only reason was to release Union prisoners from confinement and hasten their return to duty. number of prisoners to Generals Polk and Jeff. Thompson and received their own men in return. In the East, General Benjamin Huger, the Confederate commander at Norfolk, and General John E. Wool, U. S. A., made a number of special exchanges. As the number of prisoners grew, much of the time of the commanding officers was required for this business. A large amount of political pressure was brought to bear upon the officials at Washington, urging them to arrange for an exchange, and on December 3, 1861, General Halleck wrote that the prisoners ought to be exchanged, as it was simply a convention, and the fact that they had been exchanged would not prevent
South Carolina (South Carolina, United States) (search for this): chapter 1.4
mportant source of exchange 125,000 prisoners—mostly officers. Libby prison after the fall of Richmond. Libby prison after the fall of Richmond. Libby prison after the fall of Richmond. several Southerners advised that prisoners in South Carolina and Georgia, or a part of them, be released on parole, even without equivalents. It was suggested that all opposed to the administration be sent home in time to vote, and also that all whose time had expired be released. The Confederacy woueddon evidently considered the matter seriously, for he writes, It presents a great embarrassment, but I see no remedy which is not worse than the evil, and did not issue the order. This endorsement was made upon a letter from a citizen of South Carolina, dated September 21, 1864, and forwarded to Secretary Seddon with the tacit approval at least, of Governor Bonham. Previously, on September 9th, Alexander H. Stephens had suggested the release of the Andersonville prisoners, to General Howel
Aiken's Landing (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 1.4
x A. All prisoners in the East were to be delivered at Aiken's Landing on the James River (soon changed to City Point), and ice boat New York, which carried exchanged prisoners to Aiken's Landing, and later to City Point, in 1862, for the exchange toral D. H. Hill of the Confederate army, July 22, 1862, Aiken's Landing on the James River was made a point for exchange of pra lower rank or in privates, according to the tables. Aiken's Landing had served for this purpose only a few weeks when the n the year 1864 the scene was no longer so peaceful at Aiken's Landing, once used as a place of exchange. Union vessels occaer These convalescent colored troops are resting at Aiken's Landing after a march. On the right is A. M. Aiken's house, o On top of the gentle slope rising from the river at Aiken's Landing stands the dwelling of A. M. Aiken, who gave the locality his name. For a short time in 1862 Aiken's Landing, on the James River just below Dutch Gap, was used as a point of exch
Washington (United States) (search for this): chapter 1.4
on both sides, unofficially, though with the knowledge and tacit consent of the Government at Washington. The first person who officially realized the fact that the whole question of prisoners and pthis business. A large amount of political pressure was brought to bear upon the officials at Washington, urging them to arrange for an exchange, and on December 3, 1861, General Halleck wrote that torder that surgeons should be considered noncombat-ants and not sent to prison was issued from Washington, and was accepted by General Lee on the 17th. On the 9th of July, General Lee proposed to relrwise absolutely necessary. After exchanges were well under way, General Thomas returned to Washington and a volunteer officer, Lieutenant-Colonel William H. Ludlow, was appointed agent for exchange. General E. A. Hitchcock was appointed commissioner for exchange, with headquarters in Washington. Almost immediately there were difficulties in the application of the cartel. Nine days after i
Andersonville, Ga. (Georgia, United States) (search for this): chapter 1.4
this determination General Grant held fast against pressure to which a weaker man would have yielded. Conditions in Andersonville and other Southern prisons were, by this time, well known. The Confederate authorities, finding it more Where the prisoners longed to be exchanged This view of Andersonville, though not taken at the time when the prison was most crowded, gives some idea of the conditions. Practically no room was left for streets, though there was an opening for the wagons ers and army, allowed five non-commissioned officers to go through the lines bearing a petition from the prisoners at Andersonville, setting forth the conditions there and asking for exchange; but to no purpose. Nor was the protest of the commissio, for nearly every Confederate prisoner released went back to the ranks, while a large proportion of the prisoners at Andersonville belonged to regiments whose time was expired and in many cases had been mustered out of service. Therefore, had thei
Alexander H. Stephens (search for this): chapter 1.4
The Confederacy would thus be relieved of the burden of their support. Secretary Seddon evidently considered the matter seriously, for he writes, It presents a great embarrassment, but I see no remedy which is not worse than the evil, and did not issue the order. This endorsement was made upon a letter from a citizen of South Carolina, dated September 21, 1864, and forwarded to Secretary Seddon with the tacit approval at least, of Governor Bonham. Previously, on September 9th, Alexander H. Stephens had suggested the release of the Andersonville prisoners, to General Howell Cobb, who was responsible for the suggestion already mentioned that those opposed to the administration be sent home. The burden upon the South became overwhelming. Colonel Ould offered to deliver the sick and wounded at Savannah, without equivalent. Transportation was sent late in November, and there and at Charleston, where the delivery was completed after the railroad leading to Savannah was cut, abou
John E. Wool (search for this): chapter 1.4
received their own men in return. In the East, General Benjamin Huger, the Confederate commander at Norfolk, and General John E. Wool, U. S. A., made a number of special exchanges. As the number of prisoners grew, much of the time of the commandin, conscious of their deficient resources, were eager to escape the care of prisoners, and welcomed the announcement of General Wool, February 13, 1862, that he had been empowered to arrange a general exchange. General Wool met General Howell Cobb, oGeneral Wool met General Howell Cobb, on February 23d, and an agreement, except upon the point of delivery at the frontier of their own country, was reached for the delivery of all prisoners, the excess to be on parole. At a subsequent meeting, General Wool announced that his instructioGeneral Wool announced that his instructions had been changed and that he could exchange man for man only. This offer was refused by General Cobb, who charged that the reason for the unwillingness to complete the agreement was the capture of Forts Henry and Donelson, which gave the Federal
nally declared them exchanged, regardless of the approval of the Federal commissioner. The question as to whether the consent of both agents or commissioners was necessary to make a valid declaration of exchange, had been discussed before by Generals Buell and Bragg, on October 1, 1862, when General Buell declared that it was not. His version had been accepted in the West, though in the East a mutual declaration had been the rule. The trouble arose from the lack of clearness in the supplemenGeneral Buell declared that it was not. His version had been accepted in the West, though in the East a mutual declaration had been the rule. The trouble arose from the lack of clearness in the supplementary articles of the cartel giving permission to commanders of two opposing armies for paroling or exchanging prisoners by mutual consent. Colonel Ould claimed that General Gardner, in command at Port Hudson, was a subordinate officer and therefore was not authorized to accept paroles. The Federal commissioner protested vigorously, and a lengthy correspondence ensued, in which Colonel Ould declared that mutual consent was not necessary and that Colonel Ludlow had made similar declarations. C
ecame overwhelming. Colonel Ould offered to deliver the sick and wounded at Savannah, without equivalent. Transportation was sent late in November, and there and at Charleston, where the delivery was completed after the railroad leading to Savannah was cut, about thirteen thousand men were released. More than three thousand Confederates were delivered at the same time. Another proposition for exchange was made on January 24, 1865, and as it was then certain that the action could have little influence on the final result, exchanges were begun and continued with little interruption to the end, though much confusion was caused by the refusal of subordinates who had not been informed of the arrangements to receive the prisoners. In February, for example, General Schofield's orders from General Grant were delayed, and for several days he declined to receive, much to the dismay of the Confederate commander, a large number of prisoners ordered to Wilmington from Salisbury and Florence.
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