r furnace at Pottsville was blown July, 1839.
The first iron-works in America were established near Jamestown, Virginia, in 1619.
In 1622, however, the works were destroyed, and the workmen, with their families, massacred by the Indians.
The next attempt was at Lynn, Massachusetts, on the banks of the Saugus, in 1648.
The ore used was the bog ore, still plentiful in that locality.
At these works Joseph Jenks, a native of Hammersmith, England, in 1652, by order of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, coined silver shillings, sixpences, and threepences, known as the pine-tree coinage, from the device of a pine-tree on one face.
Of the special processes for treating and purifying, a few may be cited:—
Smelting by blast with charcoal, pit-coal, and coke, and with the addition of limestone or shells as a flux, have been noted.
See supra; also blastfurnace.
Puddling and boiling, somewhat similar operations for burning the carbon of pig-iron and eliminating other impurities