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Ohio (Ohio, United States) (search for this): chapter 9
attice.McNeil. 1858Montreal See tubular bridge.St. Lawrence33031 8TubularStephenson. 1867CologneRhine31331Lattice. 1861DirschanVistula39840Lattice 1874St. Louis Two side arches of 497 feet each. See tubular-arch bridge.Mississippi351551 5Tubular arch Eads. 1886KuilinburgLeck9515 Clear span of main truss, 492 feet; also one span of 262 feet; seven of 187 feet each. See d, Fig. 2702.Level.LatticeMichaelis. Louisville Whole length, 5,294 feet; weight of iron, 8,723,000 pounds.Ohio29400LevelTruss The iron truss-girder bridge over the Tay in Scotland, about 1 1/4 miles west of Dundee, is to be 10,320 feet in length, and to have, commencing on the Fifeshire side, spans as follows: three spans of 60 feet, two of 70, twenty-two of 120, fourteen of 200, sixteen of 120, twenty-five of 66, one of 160, and six of 27 feet. The bridge will thus have eighty-nine spans, and has a hight of about 78 feet above mean high water. The Girard Avenue Bridge, Philadelphia, is shown
Massachusetts Bay (Massachusetts, United States) (search for this): chapter 9
r furnace at Pottsville was blown July, 1839. The first iron-works in America were established near Jamestown, Virginia, in 1619. In 1622, however, the works were destroyed, and the workmen, with their families, massacred by the Indians. The next attempt was at Lynn, Massachusetts, on the banks of the Saugus, in 1648. The ore used was the bog ore, still plentiful in that locality. At these works Joseph Jenks, a native of Hammersmith, England, in 1652, by order of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, coined silver shillings, sixpences, and threepences, known as the pine-tree coinage, from the device of a pine-tree on one face. Of the special processes for treating and purifying, a few may be cited:— Smelting by blast with charcoal, pit-coal, and coke, and with the addition of limestone or shells as a flux, have been noted. See supra; also blastfurnace. Puddling and boiling, somewhat similar operations for burning the carbon of pig-iron and eliminating other impurities
Denmark (Denmark) (search for this): chapter 9
intermediately from the armature of the electro-magnets. 3. (Optics.) A finger working in the field of a microscope to point out a special object within the field of view. 4. A dynamometer or power measurer. In′di-cator-card. A card containing a diagram drawn by the working steam by means of an indicator (which see). In′di-cator-tel′e-graph. An electric telegraph in which the signals are given by the deflections of a magnetic needle. It was about 1819 that Oersted of Denmark made the discovery that if a magnetic needle, free to turn about its center, were placed near to and parallel with a wire, then, on causing an electric current to pass through this wire, the needle would be deflected to an angle proportioned to the force of the current. In Fig. 2670, A, a b being the wire and n s the needle, the passage of a current in the direction of the arrow deflects the needle to the position indicated, the stops c c limiting its motions. When the direction of the<
Chongren (China) (search for this): chapter 9
e. Chariots, axes, bedsteads, harrows, weapons of iron, are mentioned in Hebrew history between 1490 B. C. and 1040 B. C. Jeremiah and Ezekiel speak of iron, and mention two qualities, one of which the latter calls bright iron, probably steel. The same distinction is made by Hesiod (850 B. C.). Some doubts have been expressed as to the render- ing of the Hebrew passage which speaks of Tubal Cain as an artificer in iron, and the passage which speaks of the iron bedstead of Og, King of Bashan, about 1450 B. C. The Arundelian marbles place the use of iron in 1370 B. C., and other authorities go back to 1537 B. C. These corroborate the iron bedstead of Og. Extremes meet, and we have lately revived the use of the material first recorded as used for that purpose. Moses mentions an iron furnace 1490 B. C., and Job speaks of iron as taken out of the earth. Gold, silver, and copper, and alloys of the last, were, no doubt, used before iron, and it would be reasonable to expect that s
Hollidaysburg (Pennsylvania, United States) (search for this): chapter 9
ictional contact for the tractile effect of the motor. The railway tunnel has superseded the mountain road. On the old line of the Pennsylvania Railroad by Hollidaysburg, the reader may have noticed and admired the inclined planes by which the summit and several other gradients were ascended; stationary engines at the summit of The Portage Railway formerly occupied a nearly central position on the main line of the Pennsylvania Canal, between Columbia and Pittsburg, and extended from Hollidaysburg, on the eastern base, to Johnstown on the western base of the Alleghany Mountains, a distance of thirty-six miles; the total rise and fall on the whole length eans of ten inclined planes, and 564.17 feet by the slight inclinations given to the parts of the railway which extend between these planes. The distance from Hollidaysburg to the summit-level is about ten miles, and the hight is 1,398.31 feet. The distance from Johnstown to the same point is about twenty-six miles, and the hight
Delhi, N. Y. (New York, United States) (search for this): chapter 9
refers to the iron-smelting furnaces of the tribes encountered in his Expedition to the Zambesi. The articles produced by these peoples are hammers, tongs, hoes, adzes, fish-hooks, needles, and spear-heads. King Porus presented to Alexander the Great a wrought bar of laminated steel, for which Damascus was subsequently so famous that it is known as Damascene. One of the most remarkable forgings in the world, if it be one, is the wrought-iron pillar within the precincts of a mosque near Delhi. It is a shaft with a capital 22 feet high above ground, and a greater length below. Its probable weight is over 38,000 pounds. It has an inscription in Sanscrit, which records that it was erected by King Dhava of the Hindoo faith. The character of the Sanscrit inscription, according to the English linguists of Hindostan, indicates a period at about A. D. 400. See forging. The examples cited from the writings of Moses, Hesiod, and Homer, the attestation of the recovered implements
Herculaneum (Italy) (search for this): chapter 9
. A paint is smeared over an object, a dye colors or stains it. Some inks are of one kind and some of the other. The essential characteristics of the best ink are: limpidity, permanence, distinctness. The first enables it to flow easily and avoids clogging the pen. The second prevents its fading and becoming indistinct. The third makes it readily legible, both to the eye in following the motions of the pen, and to the eyes of readers subsequently. An ink was found in an inkstand at Herculaneum. Some ancient manuscripts show the ink in relief when held to the light, and some have evidently been corroded by the ink. Black ink is a solution of tanno-gallate of iron suspended in gum-arabic water. Logwood adds to the color. Take bruised galls, 6 ounces; gum-arabic, 4 ounces; green vitriol, 4 ounces; soft water, 6 pints. Boil the galls in the water, add the other ingredients; keep in a bottle, shake occasionally, and in two months time decant into bottles and cork. A drop o
Russia (Russia) (search for this): chapter 9
ying signals, and the idea was elaborated in lectures by Ritchie in 1830. Baron Schilling, in Russia, in 1832, contrived a complicated instrument on this principle, in which a separate circuit and nuing to grow, — a natural effect of advancing civilization, — iron was exported from Sweden and Russia in large quantities and of excellent quality. The forests of these countries gave them a natura of the teak-wood backing, all the materials of the ship, engines, and armament were produced in Russia, by Russian workmen. A round vessel invented by the Russian Admiral Popoff is 100 feet in diatinous composition, composed of dissolved membraneous animal tissues. The genuine is made in Russia from the sounds and air-bladders of sturgeon, but other kinds are made either of clean scraps ofribbon, the block rotating and its axis gradually approaching the plane of motion of the saw. Russia affords a large supply of tusks from the remains of an extinct variety of elephant which once ro
Gosport (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 9
the blowing engines driven by manual, horse, or ox power were superseded by engines. The dimension of the blast apparatus was increased from time to time, and about 1760 coke was commonly used in blast-furnaces. In 1760 Smeaton erected at the Carron works the first large blowing cylinders, and shortly after Boulton and Watt supplied the steam-engines by which the blowers were driven. Peter Onions, in his patent of 1783, described the rationale of the puddling process; and Henry Cort, of Gosport, in 1784, made it practicable, and added grooved rolls, by which the puddled bar was drawn. Neilson, of Glasgow, introduced the hot blast in 1828. Aubulot, in France, in 1811, and Budd, in England, in 1845, heated the blast by the escaping hot gases of the blast-furnace. The Calder works, in 1831, demonstrated the needlessness of coking when hot blast is employed. Experiments in smelting with anthracite coal were tried at Mauch Chunk in 1820, in France in 1827, and in Wales successful
ere exposed to the air during the night, and in the morning placed in a pit or cellar and bound around with fresh or green plants which were moistened with water, and preserved their contents cool throughout the whole day. In the countries of Southern Asia a similar opinion and practice still prevails. So far, the conditions of evaporation have been the exposure of water in an atmosphere not saturated with moisture and preferably to air in motion. It may also be added that an artificial mott; sextant. In′dia-ink. A composition of lampblack and size. Said to have been formerly made from the pigment of the cuttle-fish. The ink of the Chinese scribe, used with a brush. In′di — an steel. A fine kind of steel, made in Southern Asia direct from the ore, and known as wootz. The natural steel of India. In′dia-pa′per. The name given to a paper made with one exceedingly fine surface, and used for taking the finest impressions of steel, steel-plate, and wood engravin
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