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ed more saddle-bags, Stillman's men having thrown away a good many. The Indians then spread their scouts over the country, who killed and plundered the settlers, while the main body retired up Rock River to the Four Lakes. In the mean time, Governor Reynolds was obliged to yield to the clamors of Whitesides's militia, and disbanded them on the 26th of May, which put a stop for a time to the campaign. Abraham Lincoln was a captain in Whitesides's command, and is said, by his biographer, Lamon, in his queer narrative, to have reenlisted as a private in an independent spy company. Jefferson Davis, who was with General Gaines in his operations in 1831, was absent on furlough in Mississippi when the Black-Hawk War broke out, but gave up his furlough, and, joining his company, served in the campaign. Thus, in early life and with small rank, met as co-workers in this remote field, three men, who, forty years later, measured arms on an arena whose contest shook the world. Lieutenants
Joseph Dixon (search for this): chapter 4
to hold them in readiness to march at two o'clock the following morning. This order was not communicated to the brigades of Generals Alexander and Henry before their horses were turned out to graze. August 2d.-At two o'clock this morning the troops turned out; and, having made hasty preparation, were on the route of the enemy before sunrise, except Henry's and Alexander's brigades, for reasons before mentioned. About one hour after sunrise, a small body of spies, under the command of Captain Dixon, thrown in advance from Dodge's battalion, brought information that the enemy were drawn up in position on the route, and near at hand. We had previous notice of our proximity to the Mississippi, from having seen the fog over it, distant probably five or six miles. General Dodge instructed his spies to reconnoitre the enemy, and occupy his attention; the spies advanced as ordered, and succeeded in killing eight Indians, while they retired through the woods. In the mean time, Genera
Robert Anderson (search for this): chapter 4
o have reenlisted as a private in an independent spy company. Jefferson Davis, who was with General Gaines in his operations in 1831, was absent on furlough in Mississippi when the Black-Hawk War broke out, but gave up his furlough, and, joining his company, served in the campaign. Thus, in early life and with small rank, met as co-workers in this remote field, three men, who, forty years later, measured arms on an arena whose contest shook the world. Lieutenants Johnston, Eaton, and Robert Anderson, received commissions as colonels on the staff of the Governor of Illinois, dated May 9th. This militia rank was given, in order to secure the ready obedience of the Illinois officers, who refused to obey orders received through staff-officers of less rank than their own, and it proved a successful device. On May 29th, Governor Reynolds, upon the requisition of General Atkinson, ordered 3,000 militia to assemble June 10th. To provide for and expedite their arming, equipment, and s
ction to the pioneers. Keokuk and all the tribe, except the band under Black Hawk at the Rock Island village, removed to the west bank of the Mississippi River; but these Indians remained deaf to the advice of the agents and the solicitations of Keokuk. The Government, assuming that it had acquired a valid title to the land east of the Mississippi, threw it open to entry and purchase by the settlers, who, naturally looking no further for a foundation for their own rights, selected the most ferenry's wounded, one mortally; and one of Posey's brigade. This action was decisive; the remnant of the band fled to the west of the Mississippi, and, after having suffered almost beyond endurance, reached their own country, and were given up by Keokuk and other influential friendly Sacs to the whites. The losses of the campaign in encounters and skirmishes, and in the heavy fight at Wisconsin Heights, had greatly weakened Black Hawk's force, which had been further diminished by the deserti
Stonewall Jackson (search for this): chapter 4
gulars and militia, the feelings of the President upon this occasion. I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, Lewis Cass. To General H. Atkinson, Jefferson Barracks, Mo. The favorable opinions of the President, General Jackson, and of General Cass, on the conduct of the war, carry more weight than the ordinary bestowal of official compliments, as they were both well acquainted with the nature of the service from actual experience. The Secretary of War, in his report for 1832, says: The arrangements of the commanding general, as well in the pursuit as in the action, were prompt and judicious, and the conduct of the officers and men was exemplary. President Jackson, in his annual message, approves of the action of the military authorities, thus: The hostile incursions of the Sac and Fox Indians necessarily led to the interposition of the Government. A portion of the troops under Generals Scott and Atkinson, and of the militia of the State
it, but for the gallant defense of the French inhabitants and its timely relief by George Rogers Clark with an American force. After this, the Sacs and Foxes were engaged in wars with the Osages and other tribes, but especially with the Sioux, against whom they waged a deadly feud. Nevertheless they were prosperous, and a leading tribe in numbers; while in warlike spirit, sagacity, polity, and general intelligence, they were excelled by none of the tribes of the Northwest. In 1805 Lieutenant Pike represented their numbers at 4,600, of whom 1,100 were warriors; but Lewis and Clark compute that they were 3,200 strong, of whom 800 were warriors, which was probably nearer the truth. In 1825, the Secretary of War, adopting the estimate of Governor William Clark, reckoned their entire strength at 6,600, with a force of 1,200 or 1,400 warriors; thus showing a rapid gain in strength in twenty years. General St. Clair, Governor of the Northwest Territory, made the first treaty with
Thomas C. Reynolds (search for this): chapter 4
nduced the Sacs on Rock River not to remove from their village. The quarrel between the white people and the Indians reached such a point that in May, 1831, Governor Reynolds, on an appeal from the settlers, called out 700 Illinois militia to repel the invasion of the State, as he styled the refusal to move. General Gaines, likew spread their scouts over the country, who killed and plundered the settlers, while the main body retired up Rock River to the Four Lakes. In the mean time, Governor Reynolds was obliged to yield to the clamors of Whitesides's militia, and disbanded them on the 26th of May, which put a stop for a time to the campaign. Abraham Linllinois officers, who refused to obey orders received through staff-officers of less rank than their own, and it proved a successful device. On May 29th, Governor Reynolds, upon the requisition of General Atkinson, ordered 3,000 militia to assemble June 10th. To provide for and expedite their arming, equipment, and subsistence
Warren D. C. Hall (search for this): chapter 4
Barracks, amounting in all to about 420 men. April 8th.-In obedience to the above-mentioned order, General Atkinson set off for the Upper Mississippi, with six companies of the Sixth Infantry (220 men), which were embarked at Jefferson Barracks, Missouri, in the steamboats Enterprise and Chieftain. April 10th.-Arrived at the rapids of the Des Moines about 2 P. M. Here the commanding officer was informed that the British band of Indians, under Mucatah-mich-i-ca-Kaik Spelled, by McKenny and Hall, Ma-ka-tai-she-klakiak. ( Indian tribes, vol. II.)(Black Hawk), had crossed the Mississippi to the east bank, near the mouth of the Lower Iowa River. This band consisted of four or five hundred well-appointed horsemen, besides men and boys, employed in transporting the canoes, capable of bearing arms, making an active and efficient force of between five and six hundred: the whole-men, women, and children-amounting to above two thousand souls. The ultimate intentions of Black Hawk were unkn
the Americans gradually settled into an inveterate rancor; the continually-increasing contention between his own people and the whites aroused his fierce passions; and enforced peace galled his unquiet soul like a fetter. In the gloom of his seclusion, superstition stirred his wrath to frenzy ; and, as he saw the shadows of the dead summoning him to vengeance upon the race that had dispossessed them of the land, he brooded over vast schemes that should rival the conspiracies of Pontiac and Tecumseh. In these projects he was encouraged by the counsels of the Prophet Wabokieshiek, or White Cloud, a chief of mixed Sac and Winnebago blood, who had a village on Rock River, and possessed a wide influence among the Indian tribes. This savage charlatan, who combined great cunning with a love of intrigue, was the evil genius of Black Hawk, and lent the sanction of his omens and auguries to attempts which had no other assurance of success. Black Hawk advocated a hostile policy, in opposi
George Rogers Clark (search for this): chapter 4
St. Louis, then a village of less than five hundred people; and, encouraged by the treachery of the commandant of the Spanish garrison, would have destroyed it, but for the gallant defense of the French inhabitants and its timely relief by George Rogers Clark with an American force. After this, the Sacs and Foxes were engaged in wars with the Osages and other tribes, but especially with the Sioux, against whom they waged a deadly feud. Nevertheless they were prosperous, and a leading tribe in numbers; while in warlike spirit, sagacity, polity, and general intelligence, they were excelled by none of the tribes of the Northwest. In 1805 Lieutenant Pike represented their numbers at 4,600, of whom 1,100 were warriors; but Lewis and Clark compute that they were 3,200 strong, of whom 800 were warriors, which was probably nearer the truth. In 1825, the Secretary of War, adopting the estimate of Governor William Clark, reckoned their entire strength at 6,600, with a force of 1,200 or
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