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Browsing named entities in a specific section of The Photographic History of The Civil War: in ten volumes, Thousands of Scenes Photographed 1861-65, with Text by many Special Authorities, Volume 7: Prisons and Hospitals. (ed. Francis Trevelyan Miller). Search the whole document.

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Benjamin Huger (search for this): chapter 1.4
transfers took place. Grant's later policy was to allow as few as possible. A glance at this hardy band of captured Confederate veterans here tells the reason why. There are a hundred fights in these men yet. Why let them return to the firing-line to combat Union soldiers anew? The only reason was to release Union prisoners from confinement and hasten their return to duty. number of prisoners to Generals Polk and Jeff. Thompson and received their own men in return. In the East, General Benjamin Huger, the Confederate commander at Norfolk, and General John E. Wool, U. S. A., made a number of special exchanges. As the number of prisoners grew, much of the time of the commanding officers was required for this business. A large amount of political pressure was brought to bear upon the officials at Washington, urging them to arrange for an exchange, and on December 3, 1861, General Halleck wrote that the prisoners ought to be exchanged, as it was simply a convention, and the fact th
N. G. Watts (search for this): chapter 1.4
capacity to the end of the war. Under the supervision of these men and with the aid of General John A. Dix, the prisoners in the East were exchanged. Prisoners in the West were sent to Vicksburg, where the first exchanges were conducted by Major N. G. Watts, C. S. A., and Captain H. M. Lazelle, U. S. A. The Confederates maintained that they held, for the greater part of the time before the cartel was signed, several times as many prisoners as were held in the North. The excess was consider In spite of the suspension of the cartel, exchanges went on in the East by special agreements for more than a year longer. In the West, many thousands were exchanged by Colonel C. C. Dwight, on the part of the United States, and Lieutenant-Colonel N. G. Watts and Major Ignatius Szymanski, on the part of the Confederacy. Generals Sherman and Hood also exchanged some prisoners afterward taken by their respective commands, and other special agreements between commanders in the field were mad
Abraham Lincoln (search for this): chapter 1.4
ishment, and the commissioned officers serving under him robbers and criminals, not entitled to be considered as soldiers engaged in honorable warfare and deserving of execution. Negro troops also had been enrolled in the Union army, and President Lincoln had issued his preliminary proclamation of emancipation. In answer, President Davis decreed that all negro slaves captured in arms and their white officers should not be treated as prisoners of war but should be delivered to the States to ake further exchanges depend absolutely upon the treatment of negro troops as prisoners Men who faced death if captured officers of the ninety-second United States colored infantry When Negro troops were enrolled in the Union army and President Lincoln issued his preliminary proclamation of emancipation, President Davis decreed that slaves captured in arms against the Confederacy (and their white officers) should not be treated as prisoners of war but should be delivered to the States to
Holland Thompson (search for this): chapter 1.4
Exchange of prisoners Holland Thompson At cox's landing waiting for the flag-of-truce boat The exchange of prisoners between belligerents is made in accordance with agreements, entered into for that purpose, called cartels. The making of such agreements is purely voluntary, and cannot be constrained by subjecting prisoners to special hardships. . . . The binding force of cartels, like that of all other agreements between belligerents, rests upon the good faith of the contracting parties. If the terms of a cartel are violated by one belligerent they cease to be obligatory upon the other. George B. Davis, in Outlines of international law. Though prisoners taken in Texas, Missouri, Virginia, and elsewhere had been paroled early in the war, their exchange was not completed until much later. The first instance of formal exchange, apparently, is that in Missouri, when four officers of General G. J. Pillow's command met four of the command of Colonel W. H. L. Wallac
H. M. Lazelle (search for this): chapter 1.4
0, 1866. act as agent in the East, while the Confederate Government appointed Colonel Robert Ould, Assistant Secretary of War, and previously United States attorney for the District of Columbia, who served in that capacity to the end of the war. Under the supervision of these men and with the aid of General John A. Dix, the prisoners in the East were exchanged. Prisoners in the West were sent to Vicksburg, where the first exchanges were conducted by Major N. G. Watts, C. S. A., and Captain H. M. Lazelle, U. S. A. The Confederates maintained that they held, for the greater part of the time before the cartel was signed, several times as many prisoners as were held in the North. The excess was considerable until the capture of Forts Henry and Donelson, and the difficulty of feeding and guarding these prisoners was one of the reasons for their anxiety to arrange a plan of exchange. As early as June 17, 1862, the quartermaster-general of the Confederacy wrote that it was almost impo
John Elmer Mulford (search for this): chapter 1.4
ow, Colonel Ould was at odds; he preferred to deal with Major Mulford, the assistant agent. He refused to treat with Generaleneral to The active Federal exchange agent Brigadier-General John Elmer Mulford, U. S. A. (to the right) As assistant agent of exchange, Major Mulford occupied a most difficult position. For a time Colonel Robert Ould refused to deal with Gevis, and instead addressed all of his communications to Major Mulford. After General Grant stopped all exchanges, April 17, 1864, both General Butler and Major Mulford were bombarded with hysterical letters of appeal, abuse, and criticism. A few special exchanges were arranged after this time, and Major Mulford was ordered to Savannah to receive the thirteen thousand Fedd in the latter part of 1864. On July 4th of that year Major Mulford was advanced to brevet brigadier-general of volunteers latter answered in detail but addressed his replies to Major Mulford, the assistant agent for exchange. With the natural sh
Lew Wallace (search for this): chapter 1.4
he arrangements for exchange Colonel C. C. Dwight, of New York, was the Federal agent of exchange in the West. General Lew Wallace, the author of Ben Hur and A Prince of India, was the officer assigned to take command of Camp Chase in Ohio, whermporarily detached from his position as adjutant-general to act as agent in the East. Colonel C. C. Dwight General Lew Wallace General E. A. Hitchcock General Lorenzo Thomas The cause of this strong language was the order issued bty was forbidden by their parole. In the West, many of the paroled prisoners were sent to Camp Chase, in Ohio. General Lew Wallace, who found three thousand paroled Union soldiers when he took command of the post, reported that there had never bf exchange, be sent to Minnesota to fight the Indians, and Secretary Stanton immediately approved the suggestion. General Wallace says, however, that very few were willing to go. In order to bring some sort of order out of chaos, he determined to
side up to the summer of 1863. The Federal officials in control of the matter refused to complete the exchange of those whose paroles had been given, or to exchange the Vicksburg and Port Hudson prisoners. Colonel Ould, however, finally declared them exchanged, regardless of the approval of the Federal commissioner. The question as to whether the consent of both agents or commissioners was necessary to make a valid declaration of exchange, had been discussed before by Generals Buell and Bragg, on October 1, 1862, when General Buell declared that it was not. His version had been accepted in the West, though in the East a mutual declaration had been the rule. The trouble arose from the lack of clearness in the supplementary articles of the cartel giving permission to commanders of two opposing armies for paroling or exchanging prisoners by mutual consent. Colonel Ould claimed that General Gardner, in command at Port Hudson, was a subordinate officer and therefore was not author
George W. Randolph (search for this): chapter 1.4
ave the Federal Government an excess of prisoners which it was unwilling to release on parole. As the next move on the chess-board, the Confederate Government refused longer to make individual exchanges on the ground that, as political pressure in many cases caused the Federal Government to ask for the exchange of certain individuals, those who had no influential friends would be left in prison. On a letter of General McClellan proposing an exchange, the Confederate Secretary of War, G. W. Randolph, Colonel Robert Ould Confederate agent for the exchange of prisoners The most important person in the exchange of prisoners in the South was Colonel Robert Ould. His appointment as Confederate agent for exchange came immediately after the signing of the agreement to exchange prisoners, July 22, 1862. When Virginia left the Union, Colonel Ould followed his State. He served for a short time as Assistant Secretary of War. His relations with Colonel William H. Ludlow, the Federal a
signed, President Davis wrote to General Lee, on July 31st, saying, Scarcely had that cartel been signed when the military authorities of the United States commenced to practise changing the character of the war. from such as becomes civilized nations into a campaign of indiscriminate robbery and murder. Four Union officers prominent in the arrangements for exchange Colonel C. C. Dwight, of New York, was the Federal agent of exchange in the West. General Lew Wallace, the author of Ben Hur and A Prince of India, was the officer assigned to take command of Camp Chase in Ohio, where he found 3,000 paroled Union soldiers who had not yet been exchanged and refused to do even police duty, claiming that they would perform no soldiers' work until they were formally exchanged. General E. A. Hitchcock was the Federal commissioner of exchange in the East. It was due largely to the efforts of General Lorenzo Thomas that exchange arrangements were perfected. He was temporarily detache
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