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Browsing named entities in a specific section of The Photographic History of The Civil War: in ten volumes, Thousands of Scenes Photographed 1861-65, with Text by many Special Authorities, Volume 7: Prisons and Hospitals. (ed. Francis Trevelyan Miller). Search the whole document.

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iver service and harbor defense. The Onondaga rendered valuable aid to the army while Grant centered his operations against Richmond at City Point. In spite of the suspension of the cartel, exchanges went on in the East by special agreements for more than a year longer. In the West, many thousands were exchanged by Colonel C. C. Dwight, on the part of the United States, and Lieutenant-Colonel N. G. Watts and Major Ignatius Szymanski, on the part of the Confederacy. Generals Sherman and Hood also exchanged some prisoners afterward taken by their respective commands, and other special agreements between commanders in the field were made. Meanwhile, though the cartel of 1862 declared that all captures must be reduced to actual possession, and that all prisoners of war must be delivered at designated places for exchange or parole, unless by agreement of commanders of opposing armies, the custom of paroling prisoners at the point of capture had grown up by common consent. On the
W. M. Gardner (search for this): chapter 1.4
o make a valid declaration of exchange, had been discussed before by Generals Buell and Bragg, on October 1, 1862, when General Buell declared that it was not. His version had been accepted in the West, though in the East a mutual declaration had been the rule. The trouble arose from the lack of clearness in the supplementary articles of the cartel giving permission to commanders of two opposing armies for paroling or exchanging prisoners by mutual consent. Colonel Ould claimed that General Gardner, in command at Port Hudson, was a subordinate officer and therefore was not authorized to accept paroles. The Federal commissioner protested vigorously, and a lengthy correspondence ensued, in which Colonel Ould declared that mutual consent was not necessary and that Colonel Ludlow had made similar declarations. Colonel Ould furnished a schedule of captures, some of which were pronounced legitimate while the validity of others was denied. When his paroles were exhausted all further e
William B. Mumford (search for this): chapter 1.4
orning found three muskets leaning against a tree, left there by sentinels who had deserted. Since so few of the released Federal prisoners were willing to reenlist, while the majority of the Confederates by this time were in the ranks for the whole war, it is perhaps natural that doubts of the wisdom of further exchange should become convictions in the minds of some of the Northern leaders. Meanwhile, General Benjamin F. Butler had begun his military government in New Orleans, and William B. Mumford, a citizen, had been hanged for pulling down the United States flag. The Confederacy charged that this was done before the city had been formally occupied by Federal troops. On December 23, 1862, President Davis issued a proclamation denouncing General Butler as a felon deserving of capital punishment, and the commissioned officers serving under him robbers and criminals, not entitled to be considered as soldiers engaged in honorable warfare and deserving of execution. Negro troop
William H. Seward (search for this): chapter 1.4
an we hold, when released on parole or otherwise, becomes an active soldier against us at once either directly or indirectly. If we commence a system of exchange which liberates all prisoners taken, we will have to fight on until the whole South is exterminated. If we hold those caught, they amount to no more than dead men. At this particular time to release all rebel prisoners in the North would insure Sherman's defeat and would compromise our safety here. The next day a letter to Secretary Seward closes with the following sentence, We have got to fight until the military power of the South is exhausted, and if we release or exchange prisoners captured, it simply becomes a war of extermination. To this determination General Grant held fast against pressure to which a weaker man would have yielded. Conditions in Andersonville and other Southern prisons were, by this time, well known. The Confederate authorities, finding it more Where the prisoners longed to be exchanged
Edwin M. Stanton (search for this): chapter 1.4
of July, General John A. Dix was authorized by Secretary Stanton to negotiate for the exchange, but was cautionf this strong language was the order issued by Secretary Stanton, on July 22d, which, as interpreted by PresideNo. 54, on August 1, 1862. After referring to Secretary Stanton's order, and General Pope's order already mentd ragged, despairing and totally demoralized. Secretary Stanton, in an interesting telegraphic correspondence be sent to Minnesota to fight the Indians, and Secretary Stanton immediately approved the suggestion. Genera the charge of inciting negro insurrection. Secretary Stanton, December 28, 1862, answered by suspending theday of the battle of Gettysburg, July 3, 1863, Secretary Stanton issued General Orders No. 207, declaring that ing forth in his confidential communication to Secretary Stanton that his great object was to get exchanges sta, April 17, 1864, who, after consultation with Secretary Stanton, forbade any exchange until the questions of t
William Libby (search for this): chapter 1.4
This appears to be only a temporary halt; the wayfarers will shortly march out on the pier to a boat waiting to take them down the James. The opposite shore can dimly be seen on the left of the picture. Here as on the following page, in front of Aiken's mill, appears a martin-box. released every Federal prisoner in the South, while leaving thousands of Confederates in confinement. With the practical cessation of exchanges came much complaint upon both sides. The hardships of Salisbury, Libby, and Belle Isle are, of course, better known by the North than those of Fort Delaware, Alton, and Camp Morton. But in Southern experiences and reminiscences, perhaps as many complaints of insufficient food and clothing and of cruel treatment can be found as on the other side up to the summer of 1863. The Federal officials in control of the matter refused to complete the exchange of those whose paroles had been given, or to exchange the Vicksburg and Port Hudson prisoners. Colonel Ould,
James Grant (search for this): chapter 1.4
risoners. In the West, Generals Halleck and Grant turned over a On the way to freedom—exchangny further warfare until regularly exchanged. Grant took the words of twenty-nine thousand men at City Point, where these transfers took place. Grant's later policy was to allow as few as possibleis communications to Major Mulford. After General Grant stopped all exchanges, April 17, 1864, botondaga rendered valuable aid to the army while Grant centered his operations against Richmond at Ciners would go. On August 18th, however, General Grant wrote to General Butler, who was still corof extermination. To this determination General Grant held fast against pressure to which a weak be adopted. The same determination which led Grant to hammer steadily in the Wilderness campaign,ber 1, 1864, again proposed an exchange to General Grant. It was met by the question whether negror example, General Schofield's orders from General Grant were delayed, and for several days he decl[3 more...]
A. M. Aiken (search for this): chapter 1.4
his point. The queer-looking craft in the center of the river is the double-turreted monitor Onondaga. It was no longer safe for women and children to stay in A. M. Aiken's dwelling on the hill; shells from the warship might come hurtling ashore at the slightest sign of Confederates. After the success of the first monitor, severeded Colonel Ludlow as agent A glad sight for the prisoners On top of the gentle slope rising from the river at Aiken's Landing stands the dwelling of A. M. Aiken, who gave the locality his name. For a short time in 1862 Aiken's Landing, on the James River just below Dutch Gap, was used as a point of exchange for soldierpron stands on the other side of the pillar. Some Union officers are lounging at the near end of the porch. The mill shown in the lower photograph was owned by Mr. Aiken. His rude wharf stretching out into the river enabled the neighboring farmers to land their corn, which they brought to be ground. The structure in the front i
d also that all whose time had expired be released. The Confederacy would thus be relieved of the burden of their support. Secretary Seddon evidently considered the matter seriously, for he writes, It presents a great embarrassment, but I see no remedy which is not worse than the evil, and did not issue the order. This endorsement was made upon a letter from a citizen of South Carolina, dated September 21, 1864, and forwarded to Secretary Seddon with the tacit approval at least, of Governor Bonham. Previously, on September 9th, Alexander H. Stephens had suggested the release of the Andersonville prisoners, to General Howell Cobb, who was responsible for the suggestion already mentioned that those opposed to the administration be sent home. The burden upon the South became overwhelming. Colonel Ould offered to deliver the sick and wounded at Savannah, without equivalent. Transportation was sent late in November, and there and at Charleston, where the delivery was completed a
Robert Ould (search for this): chapter 1.4
exchange of prisoners in the South was Colonel Robert Ould. His appointment as Confederate agent , but finally opened negotiations with him. Colonel Ould had one advantage over the Federal agents ile the Confederate Government appointed Colonel Robert Ould, Assistant Secretary of War, and previoof General Pope's command were forwarded by Colonel Ould, September 24, 1862. Exchanges went on, anexchanges were sometimes effected, although Colonel Ould attempted to prevent all such. President Dsions of General Orders No. 100 served upon Colonel Ould on May 23d also forbade parole without delie the Vicksburg and Port Hudson prisoners. Colonel Ould, however, finally declared them exchanged, or exchanging prisoners by mutual consent. Colonel Ould claimed that General Gardner, in command atonel Ludlow had made similar declarations. Colonel Ould furnished a schedule of captures, some of wluminous correspondence between himself and Colonel Ould is interesting. Both were able lawyers, bo[15 more...]
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