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New Castle, Ky. (Kentucky, United States) (search for this): chapter 7
is applied alongside of a vertical wheel. The tool is clamped to a holder, which has horizontal and vertical graduated arcs, admitting of adjustment to any required angle, so as to form a double bevel. Grind′stone. Grindstones are made from the more compact sandstones, varying in texture and compactness according to the work required. Those of England are highly esteemed. Different localities of that country afford such as are required for almost every purpose. Among these the Newcastle stones, from the coal measures of Northumberland and the adjacent counties, have a pre-eminence in England for general purposes; others are used for grinding, while many varieties are employed as plane surfaces for whetstones. Other qualities are used for hones. A German variety is famous for this purpose. The very finest qualities, composed of an almost impalpable agglutinated powder, are used as oil-stones. Such are the Water of Ayr, and Blue stones, and the Turkey oil-stone. The ol
Suffolk (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 7
es to hold the grass-seed and allow certain small weed-seeds and dust to pass. Grate. 1. A grated box or basket, or a box with a series of bars for a floor, in which fuel is burned. The oldest form of grate may have been a row of bars laid upon bearers or stones so as to admit air beneath the fuel in the intervals of the bars. A cresset or fire-cage is also an old form of grate. See cresset. In an inventory, dated 1606, of the goods of Sir Thomas Kytson, at Hengrave Hall, Suffolk, England, mention is made of a cradell of iron for the chimnye to burn sea-coal with, and also j fier sholve made like a grate to seft the sea-coal with. The cradell was probably a standing basket-grate. This is an early mention of the use of sea-coal, but the basket form was common in cressets. James Watt, in 1785, patented an arrangement for consuming the smoke in furnaces, by supplying the fire from above downward by means of a reservoir of fuel in contact with the ignited mass, the fue
Norman, Cleveland county (Oklahoma, United States) (search for this): chapter 7
of traveling harvesters, the rakes of hay-loaders, the reels of tedders and reapers, etc. Ground-work. 1. (Civil Engineering.) a. The preparation of ground for the foundation of a structure, or giving it the required contour for any other purpose. b. The basis or structural foundation of an erection. 2. (Painting.) The base color on which the painting is performed. Grout. a. A thin coarse mortar used to run into crevices between the stones or bricks of a structure. The Norman walls were of great thickness, and were filled up with small stones, amongst which mortar was poured in hot. This was called grouting; and in time the whole mass so hardened to- gether as to acquire the consistence and strength of a solid rock. — Weale. b. A finishing or setting coat of fine stuff for ceilings. Grove Batter-y. A form of double-fluid galvanic battery, invented in 1839 by William Robert Grove, F. R. S. It has a glass jar or cell in which is placed a plate of zinc be
Salodurum (Switzerland) (search for this): chapter 7
ash, and lime; the latter contains in addition oxide of lead. This tends to sink to the bottom of the melting-pot, rendering the glass of unequal texture and consequent refracting power. In this consisted the principal difficulty in obtaining object-glasses of large size. So late as 1830, the largest object-glasses of satisfactory performance which were produced did not exceed five or six inches in diameter. Previous to this, however, Guinand, a melter in a glass-manufactory at Soleure, in Switzerland, succeeded in making large disks, but he kept his process secret, and died without disclosing it, though it continued to be practiced by his son and afterward by M. Pfeil of Paris, who exhibited at the Exposition of 1867 a disk of the diameter of 72 centimeters,—over 28 inches. The process of making these disks consists substantially in uniting numerous small selected masses of uniform density and refracting power into one large mass by pressure while in a plastic state. In 1855, M
Palermo (Italy) (search for this): chapter 7
f after the tool has been applied. Gold-var′nish. (Metallurgy.) A yellow, transparent varnish spread over silver-leaf to give it the appearance of gold. The invention seems to have originated about 1680 with Antonino Cento, an artist of Palermo. It was introduced into England by Evelyn, 1680. The varnish is made of gum lac digested in spirits of wine. Gold-wash′ers. Pliny speaks of the method of gathering gold by means of an artificial river and sluices, the water being broughte history of the industrial arts. War quickened the extension of printing. In 1482 the storming of Mentz dispersed the workmen, and gave the art of printing to the world. In 1146 Roger of Sicily plundered Greece, and took home with him to Palermo silk-worms, workmen, and the art of weaving silk. From Sicily it spread to France, Italy, and Spain, and from Italy to England. Other instances might be cited where the irruptions of tribes or nations, or internecine disturbances, have disse<
Calvert (Texas, United States) (search for this): chapter 7
doctor or pressing-knife, and also with the surface of the gin-roller, in such a manner as to cause the seed and refuse to be beaten off, and at the same time to cause the fibers and seeds to be moved to and fro along the edge of the doctor. Calvert's toothed-roller gin has a guard-toothed roller b, which acts in conjunction with a guard-roller a to remove the lint from the hopper and keep back the seeds. The brush-roller c removes the lint from the roller b and conducts it to the exit. Calvert's gin. Gin-block. Gin—block. A tackleblock with a hook to swing from the gib of a crane or from the sheer of a gin. Gin′gal. An East Indian breech-loading fire-arm carrying a ball of from four to eight ounces. See Jingal. Ging′ham. (Fabric.) A linen or cotton goods, colored in the thread. Ging′ing. The lining of a shaft with bricks or masonry. Gin′gly-mus. An elbow-joint which permits no other motion than in one plane, having no rolling articul
Easton, Pa. (Pennsylvania, United States) (search for this): chapter 7
e two ordinary rails of a railway track, and employed in connection with devices on the engine, carriages, or both, in preventing the rolling-stock from running off the track. The center-rail gripped by horizontally rotating wheels acts as a guide-rail. Blenkinsop's rack-rail (English patent, 1811) was used as a means of progression in connection with a spur-wheel on the engine, and not as a guide. Following him was Snowden's middle-rack and mechanical horse. See center-rail. Easton's center rail (English patent, 1825) fulfilled two purposes; its upper edge formed a rack and served, in connection with a spur-wheel on the locomotive, as a means of progression; its sides formed a guide-rail in connection with pairs of horizontally rotating rollers underneath the carriages of the train. Kollman's English patent of 1836 has a similar guide-rail. Prosser's guide-wheels (English patent, 1844) are set an angle of 45° beneath the truck, and have sunken rectangular faces w
Australia (Australia) (search for this): chapter 7
recognize half-tones. The process is therefore only suitable for the production of work either in dots or lines. For this purpose it was used by Mr. Osborne in Australia, in Southampton, England, and now very extensively in this country. See photolithography. Poitevin's process, 1855, belongs to this group, and is typical ofstrous, malleable, ductile, nonoxidizable, soft metal. Its uses are for coin, plate, ornaments, and articles of luxury. Its principal sources are California, Australia, the western coast of Africa, and the Ural. It is a very widely disseminated metal, but is only found in paying quantities in a few countries. Wicklow, in Irelto seven pounds is employed. Gold-min′ing. The different modes of collecting gold in the placers of California — and the same is true of some other places, Australia, for instance — are familiarly known as panning, winnowing, cradle-rocking, washing with the long-tom or the quicksilver-machine, jamming or turning the course o<
Bonaparte (search for this): chapter 7
The guitar was played as an accompaniment to the voice and in concert with other instruments. Also in concert with dancing motions and posturing, which is about as near as the Egyptians came to theatrical performances. These were invented by the Greeks, the originators of tragedy and comedy. The Romans added the pantomime. On the Guglia Rotta at Rome is a large obelisk, which was brought from Egypt by Augustus and thrown down and broken at the sacking of the city by the Constable of Bourbon, in 1527. On it is represented a guitar (b) which had evidently two strings. The length of the finger-board would allow a considerable scale of notes. In the sculptures of Nimroud is represented a musician playing on a guitar. The present name is derived intermediately from the ancient Greek, where it indicated a musical instrument resembling a harp (cilhara). The Europeans, ancient and modern, derived it from Egypt. Like some other things, it was imported directly into Gree
Lambeth (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 7
h century, though there were but few glass windows in private dwellings. Talc, isinglass, horn, oiled paper, and thinly shaved leather were generally used instead of glass throughout the civilized world. Blue glass, colored by the addition of cobalt to the frit, was discovered about 1550 by Christopher Schurer of Platten, Bohemia. Glass was imported into England, A. D. 1177; the manufacture was established in that country, 1557. In Savoy, the same year. Plate-glass was made at Lambeth by Venetian artists, 1673. The British Plate-Glass Company was established 1773. An active manufactory of glass exists at Hebron, in the land of Palestine,—the same Hebron where is the cave of Machpelah, bought by Abraham for a sum of money of Ephron, one of the sons of Heth. The tombs are preserved in rigid seclusion from Jew and Christian; of the latter, not one lives in the town of 5,000 people. Dr. Thomson gives an account of it in his work, The land and the book, but could not
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