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Browsing named entities in a specific section of The Photographic History of The Civil War: in ten volumes, Thousands of Scenes Photographed 1861-65, with Text by many Special Authorities, Volume 7: Prisons and Hospitals. (ed. Francis Trevelyan Miller). Search the whole document.

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d in arms against the Confederacy (and their white officers) should not be treated as prisoners of war but should be delivered to the States to be punished according to State laws. If this decree had been carried out, these officers might have suffered the penalty of death on the charge of inciting Negro insurrection. The Ninety-second United States Colored Infantry was organized April 4, 1864, from the Twenty-second Corps d'afrique Infantry of New Orleans. These photographs were taken by Lytle at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, just before the disastrous Red River campaign in which the regiment took part. of war. The voluminous correspondence between himself and Colonel Ould is interesting. Both were able lawyers, both had a fondness for disputation, and sometimes one is tempted to believe that to both of them the subject of discussion was not really so important as the discussion itself, and that overwhelming the adversary was more vital than securing the objects of the discussion. Al
Howell Cobb (search for this): chapter 1.4
of prisoners, and welcomed the announcement of General Wool, February 13, 1862, that he had been empowered to arrange a general exchange. General Wool met General Howell Cobb, on February 23d, and an agreement, except upon the point of delivery at the frontier of their own country, was reached for the delivery of all prisoners, At a subsequent meeting, General Wool announced that his instructions had been changed and that he could exchange man for man only. This offer was refused by General Cobb, who charged that the reason for the unwillingness to complete the agreement was the capture of Forts Henry and Donelson, which gave the Federal Government an cit approval at least, of Governor Bonham. Previously, on September 9th, Alexander H. Stephens had suggested the release of the Andersonville prisoners, to General Howell Cobb, who was responsible for the suggestion already mentioned that those opposed to the administration be sent home. The burden upon the South became overwhe
Simon Cameron (search for this): chapter 1.4
Confederate government , and therefore whatever exchanges followed these for several months were made by the commanding officers on both sides, unofficially, though with the knowledge and tacit consent of the Government at Washington. The first person who officially realized the fact that the whole question of prisoners and prisons was likely to be important was QuartermasterGen-eral M. C. Meigs, U. S. A., who, on July 12, 1861, nine days before the first battle of Bull Run, wrote Secretary of War Cameron advising the appointment of a commissarygen-eral of prisoners. In the West, Generals Halleck and Grant turned over a On the way to freedom—exchanged Confederate prisoners bound for cox's landing under guard, September 20, 1864 At a slight distance, this might seem a picture of a caravan in the Sahara Desert, but as a matter of fact the men in the far-stretching line are Confederate prisoners escorted by cavalry on their way from the Federal lines to Cox's Landing. The mora
Samuel Cooper (search for this): chapter 1.4
ay after the signing of the cartel, was also mentioned. The first paragraph of this order reads as follows, Commanders of army corps, divisions, brigades, and detached commands will proceed immediately to arrest all disloyal male citizens within their lines or within their reach in the rear of their respective stations. Those unwilling to take an oath of allegiance and furnish bond were to be sent to the Confederate lines. Two days after the letter of President Davis, therefore, General Samuel Cooper, adjutant-general of the Confederacy, issued General Orders No. 54, on August 1, 1862. After referring to Secretary Stanton's order, and General Pope's order already mentioned, together with the action of General Steinwehr, who, it was asserted, had arrested private citizens in Virginia with the threat that they would be put to death if any of his soldiers were killed, the order declares that all these things taken together show a disposition to violate all the rules and usages of w
C. C. Dwight (search for this): chapter 1.4
as becomes civilized nations into a campaign of indiscriminate robbery and murder. Four Union officers prominent in the arrangements for exchange Colonel C. C. Dwight, of New York, was the Federal agent of exchange in the West. General Lew Wallace, the author of Ben Hur and A Prince of India, was the officer assigned tonzo Thomas that exchange arrangements were perfected. He was temporarily detached from his position as adjutant-general to act as agent in the East. Colonel C. C. Dwight General Lew Wallace General E. A. Hitchcock General Lorenzo Thomas The cause of this strong language was the order issued by Secretary Stantone suspension of the cartel, exchanges went on in the East by special agreements for more than a year longer. In the West, many thousands were exchanged by Colonel C. C. Dwight, on the part of the United States, and Lieutenant-Colonel N. G. Watts and Major Ignatius Szymanski, on the part of the Confederacy. Generals Sherman and H
John A. Dix (search for this): chapter 1.4
l McClellan's wounded on parole, and the offer was accepted by General McClellan. Finally, on the 12th of July, General John A. Dix was authorized by Secretary Stanton to negotiate for the exchange, but was cautioned in every possible way to avoiween the United States and Great Britain during the War of 1812 was suggested as a basis. General Lee was informed of General Dix's appointment on July 13th, and the next day announced that he had appointed General D. H. Hill as commissioner on theolumbia, who served in that capacity to the end of the war. Under the supervision of these men and with the aid of General John A. Dix, the prisoners in the East were exchanged. Prisoners in the West were sent to Vicksburg, where the first exchange Where the value of a man was calculated After a cartel of exchange had been agreed upon between the Federal General John A. Dix and General D. H. Hill of the Confederate army, July 22, 1862, Aiken's Landing on the James River was made a point
G. J. Pillow (search for this): chapter 1.4
eements between belligerents, rests upon the good faith of the contracting parties. If the terms of a cartel are violated by one belligerent they cease to be obligatory upon the other. George B. Davis, in Outlines of international law. Though prisoners taken in Texas, Missouri, Virginia, and elsewhere had been paroled early in the war, their exchange was not completed until much later. The first instance of formal exchange, apparently, is that in Missouri, when four officers of General G. J. Pillow's command met four of the command of Colonel W. H. L. Wallace, and exchanged six privates, three on each side. The Federal Government was anxious to avoid in any way a recognition of the Confederate government , and therefore whatever exchanges followed these for several months were made by the commanding officers on both sides, unofficially, though with the knowledge and tacit consent of the Government at Washington. The first person who officially realized the fact that the whol
Lorenzo Thomas (search for this): chapter 1.4
greed to appoint two agents, one in the East and one in the West, to carry out the stipulations of the contract. General Lorenzo Thomas was temporarily detached from his position as adjutant-general to The active Federal exchange agent Brigadier-ange of prisoners of war or their disposition otherwise absolutely necessary. After exchanges were well under way, General Thomas returned to Washington and a volunteer officer, Lieutenant-Colonel William H. Ludlow, was appointed agent for exchangneral E. A. Hitchcock was the Federal commissioner of exchange in the East. It was due largely to the efforts of General Lorenzo Thomas that exchange arrangements were perfected. He was temporarily detached from his position as adjutant-general to act as agent in the East. Colonel C. C. Dwight General Lew Wallace General E. A. Hitchcock General Lorenzo Thomas The cause of this strong language was the order issued by Secretary Stanton, on July 22d, which, as interpreted by Pr
George B. Davis (search for this): chapter 1.4
y cease to be obligatory upon the other. George B. Davis, in Outlines of international law. Th that he had been proclaimed an outlaw by President Davis, and instead addressed all of his communie cartel. Nine days after it was signed, President Davis wrote to General Lee, on July 31st, sayinon, on July 22d, which, as interpreted by President Davis, directed the military authorities of thete lines. Two days after the letter of President Davis, therefore, General Samuel Cooper, adjuta will, was instructed to convey copies of President Davis' letter and the general orders to Generalby Federal troops. On December 23, 1862, President Davis issued a proclamation denouncing General proclamation of emancipation. In answer, President Davis decreed that all negro slaves captured inonel Ould attempted to prevent all such. President Davis' proclamation was practically endorsed bypreliminary proclamation of emancipation, President Davis decreed that slaves captured in arms agai
Benjamin F. Butler (search for this): chapter 1.4
assistant agent. He refused to treat with General Butler at first, but finally opened negotiations e Colonel Robert Ould refused to deal with General Butler, when the latter was the Federal agent of topped all exchanges, April 17, 1864, both General Butler and Major Mulford were bombarded with hystof the Northern leaders. Meanwhile, General Benjamin F. Butler had begun his military government inent Davis issued a proclamation denouncing General Butler as a felon deserving of capital punishmentimonious controversy with Colonel Ould. General Butler, who had been appointed to command at Fortfederate authorities refused to treat with General Butler, but finally Secretary Seddon, on April 28nel Ould opened negotiations. Previously, General Butler had written many letters to Colonel Ould whe natural shrewdness of an astute lawyer, General Butler saw that too many questions were involved uard against cruel treatment of negro troops. Butler wrote that it was his object, after exchanges [1 more...]
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