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Wigan (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 7
ina, these exudations, either natural or resulting from deep boring, have been utilized from time immemorial for lighting towns in the neighborhood of these jets. In boring for salt water, imprisoned reservoirs of carbureted hydrogen have been reached, and the gas thus obtained has been utilized in China, and in the valley of the Kanawha, West Virginia, in evaporating the brine. Gas flowing naturally is or has been used in the neigh borhood of Fredonia, New York; Portland, on Lake Erie; Wigan, Great Britain (in 1667); and in many other places. The uses made of it by the Magi, or fire-worshippers of Persia, have not been properly examined or determined; but the holy fires of Baku, on the shore of the Caspian, have attained some celebrity, and are maintained by a natural stream of carbureted hydrogen. Paracelsus remarked the disengagement of gas when iron was dissolved in sulphuric acid. Van Helmont, a Belgian chemist, gave it the name of gas, and distinguished gases from at
Scotland (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 7
and the necessary ventilation. Gre′go-ri — an Tel′e-scope. The first and most ordinary form of reflecting telescope, invented by Professor James Gregory of Scotland, and described by him 1663. Its object mirror or speculum is perforated in its axis, and reflects the image to a smaller concave speculum placed in the axis oto that object. 2. (Plumbing.) A tool used in smoothing the solder joints of lead pipe. Grubber. (Agriculture.) a. An agricultural implement used in Scotland for stirring and loosening the soil to plow depth. It is a heavy cultivator drawn by four horses, and supported on wheels. One form has an inner frame attachedired — except, perhaps, mercy. A beheading machine, called the maiden, and sometimes the widow, by the lively Scotch, was imported from Halifax, England, into Scotland, about 1550, by the Regent Morton, who seems to have been enamored of the maiden's business capacity. He was beheaded thereby in 1581, — though he was not
Hebron, Conn. (Connecticut, United States) (search for this): chapter 7
er were generally used instead of glass throughout the civilized world. Blue glass, colored by the addition of cobalt to the frit, was discovered about 1550 by Christopher Schurer of Platten, Bohemia. Glass was imported into England, A. D. 1177; the manufacture was established in that country, 1557. In Savoy, the same year. Plate-glass was made at Lambeth by Venetian artists, 1673. The British Plate-Glass Company was established 1773. An active manufactory of glass exists at Hebron, in the land of Palestine,—the same Hebron where is the cave of Machpelah, bought by Abraham for a sum of money of Ephron, one of the sons of Heth. The tombs are preserved in rigid seclusion from Jew and Christian; of the latter, not one lives in the town of 5,000 people. Dr. Thomson gives an account of it in his work, The land and the book, but could not reach the vault. The manufacture consists of party-colored glass bracelets for the Jerusalem market, and lamps for Syria, Palestine,
Swansea (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 7
iron, is calcined in brick ovens, being stirred with iron rods. The resulting black or brown powder is placed on the hearth of a reverberatory smelting-furnace, with such mixture of auriferous, argentiferous, and cupriferous ores as shall produce the reactions which will separate the materials into a floating dross and a pool of metal. The ferruginous slag is drawn off at an upper hole, and a mixture of gold, silver, copper, and iron at a lower hole, forming a matt which is shipped to Swansea, Wales, for complete separation. Gold, im-i-ta′tion. Mock-gold. See jeweler's alloys, p. 63. Gold-leaf. Gold-leaf was made in Egypt 1706 B. C. Homer refers to it. The temple of Solomon was profusely gift. Pliny states that in his time a single ounce admitted of being heaten out into 750 leaves, four fingers in length by the same in breadth. This tenuity is very far exceeded at the present day. In the practice of the art in Europe, the skin of an unborn calf was first used; afterwa
Yellow River, Georgia (Georgia, United States) (search for this): chapter 7
.89 feet. The gnomon of the sun-dial of Delhi takes the form of an elevated staircase. See dial. The gnomon or style of a horizontal dial has an edge parallel to the axis of the earth, and makes with the horizontal plane of the dial-plate an angle equal to the latitude of the place. The gnomon was anciently used in China for astronomical purposes, but this people did not excel in dialing. A measurement of the length of the solstitial shadow, made by Tschea-Kung, at Loyang, on the Yellow River, 1200 B. C., was found by Laplace (quoted by Humboldt in Cosmos, Val. 11. p. 1151 to accord perfectly with the present accepted theory of the change in the obliquity of the ecliptic. The sun-dial and the gnomon, with the division of the day into twelve parts, were received by the Greeks from the Babylonians. Herodotus, 2. 109. Eubulus, the comie poet, quoted by Athenaeus, who wrote about A. D. 220, says: — We have invited two unequalled men, Philo-crates and eke Philocrates, —
Switzerland (Switzerland) (search for this): chapter 7
ven levels. If of glass, they are usually impressed in the mold; if of porcelain, they are painted on the ware before burning. Grad′u-ated-glass. A tube with a foot, and with horizontal marks at varying hights to indicate quantity of contents. A measuring-glass. Grad′u-ator. An apparatus in which a solution is allowed to trickle over a large extent of surface, during which it is exposed to a current of air. This is adopted in the salt-works of Montiers, in the Tarantaise, Switzerland, where brine having 1.83 percent of saline matter is condensed to such a degree of saturation as to be profitably evaporated by boiling. It is trickled over fagots of thorns placed in frames, and acquires a density of 22 per cent. Another plan is to let it trickle over suspended ropes upon which it crystallizes and is broken off. The ropes last twenty-five years; the fagots, seven years. Graduator. Vinegar is manufactured by exposing a large surface to oxidation in a similar man
Granada (Spain) (search for this): chapter 7
mother of Shah Abbas, about 1550, has a covering of green glazed tiles on the front of the principal gateway. The Alhambra, a Moorish palace and fortress near Granada, was founded by Mohammed I. of Granada about 1253. Some of the rooms are ornamented by glazed tiles. Coffins of green glazed pottery are found at Warka in MesGranada about 1253. Some of the rooms are ornamented by glazed tiles. Coffins of green glazed pottery are found at Warka in Mesopotamia, and are ascribed by Rawlinson to the period of the Parthian occupation of that country. This is a startling supposition. The style of ornamentation and the figures stamped upon them forbid the supposition that they were imported from China, and yet this single fact of glazed pottery in that place at that time is almosd, pulvis nitratus, is mentioned in an Arabic writing in the Escurial collection, datiing about 1249. The Moors used it in Spain in 1312, and in 1331 the king of Granada battered Alicant with iron bullets, discharged by fire from machines. In 1342 – 43, the Moorish garrison of Algesiras defended themselves against Alonzo XI., kin
Mount Savage (California, United States) (search for this): chapter 7
for lining the Bessemer convertors. It consists of crushed or ground silicious stone mixed with fire-clay. Its object is to save the iron convertor from destruction by the heat of the charge. Ground quartz, sand, and fire-clay. English gang-saw. Atwood's compound for lining the bottoms of Bessemer converters consists of carbon, preferably that obtained from old crucibles, although anthracite or bituminous coal may be used, German, or other plastic clay, old ground fire-brick, Mount Savage stone-clay, and burned, or unburned sand. These materials are ground together, and tamped into the mold. Gap-window. (Architecture.) A long and narrow window. Gar′board-strake. (Shipwrighting.) The range of planks nearest to the keel. In the merchant service, the rabbet to receive the garboard-strake is made along the upper edge of the keel. In the navy, a groove is made half-way down the keel to receive the garboard-strake. Garden-en′gine. A wheelbarrow tank a
Tuscany (Italy) (search for this): chapter 7
shing pottery, and applied by him to different products exhibited at the Champ de Mars (Group III. Class XVII., Italian Section). The following are the ingredients and their proportion to be fritted: Carbonate of soda, 1.000; boracic acid, from Tuscany, 0.800; kaolin, 0.125; carbonate of line, 0.250; sulphate of lime, 0.250; crystallized felspar, 0.750; quartz from the Tessin, 0.280; fluate of lime, 0.150. Manganese of Piedmont is added to obtain the desired tint. The whole frit is ground fi Another was a structure raised on wooden columns. Egyptian granaries. In Thrace, Cappadocia, Spain, and Africa, grain was laid up in pits lined with chaff. Caverns and eisterns were used in Palestine. A similar practice yet prevails in Tuscany. Grand-ac′tion. A piano-forte action, in which three features are combined: 1, a hammer to strike the string; 2, a hopper to elevate the hammer, and then escaping therefrom leave the latter instantly to fall away from the string, independe
Westminster bridge (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 7
by the burning of the coal smoke. — Monthly Magazine, London, June 1, 1805. In 1803 – 4, Winsor lighted the Lyceum Theater and took out a patent for lighting streets by gas. He established the first gas-company. In 1804 – 5, Murdoch lighted the cotton-factory of Philips and Lee, Manchester, the light being estimated as equal to 3,000 candles. This was the largest undertaking up to that date. In 1807, Winsor lighted one side of Pall Mall, London; the first street lighting. Westminster Bridge was lighted in 1813. Houses of Parliament, London, in the same year. Streets of London generally, 1815. Streets of Paris, the same year. James McMurtrie proposed to light streets of Philadelphia, 1815. Baltimore commenced the use of gas, 1816. Boston, 1822. New York City, 1825. The Newton gas-well, six miles from Titusville, Pa., discharges at the rate of three millions of cubic feet of gas every day of twenty-four hours. The gas issues under a pressure of from twen<
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