1. A philosopher, born at Olynthus. His mother, Hero, was a cousin of Aristotle's, and by him Callisthenes was brought up, studying under him at Stageira, together, as we may infer, with Alexander, and certainly with Theophrastus, with whom Aristotle is said to have contrasted him, saying, that Theophrastus needed the rein, but Callisthenes the spur [but see p. 317b.]. When Alexander set forth on his Asiatic expedition, B. C. 334, he took Callisthenes with him by Aristotle's recommendation.
The latter, however, was aware of the faults of his kinsman's character, of his total want of tact and prudence, and of his wrong-headed propensity to the unseasonable exhibition of his independent spirit; and against these he warned him to guard in his intercourse with the king.
The warning was give in vain. Callisthenes became indignant at Alexander's adoption of oriental customs, and especially at the requirement of the ceremony of adoration, which he deemed de
（*Koi=nos), a son of Polemocrates and son-in-law of Parmenion, was one of the ablest and most faithful generals of Alexander the Great in his eastern expedition.
In the autumn of B. C. 334, when Alexander was in Caria, and sent those of his soldiers who had been recently married, to Macedonia, to spend the ensuing winter with their wives there, Coenus was one of the commanders who led them back to Europe.
In the spring of the year following, Coenus returned with the Macedonians, and joined Alexander at Gordium.
He commanded a portion of Alexander's army, and distinguished himself on various occasions. When Alexander had arrived at the river Hyphasis, and was anxious to push his conquests still further, Coenus was the first who had the boldness strongly to urge the necessity of returning, and the king was obliged to follow his advice.
But a short time afterwards, when the Macedonian army had actually commenced its return, Coenus died of an illness, and was honoured by the king