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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 334 BC or search for 334 BC in all documents.

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Calas or CALLAS (*Ka/las, *Ka/llas). 1. Son of the traitor Harpalus of Elimiotis, and first cousin to Antigonus, king of Asia, held a command in the army which Philip sent into Asia under Parmenion and Attalus, B. C. 336, to further his cause among the Greek cities there. Tn B. C. 335, Calas was defeated in a battle in the Troad by Memnon, the Rhodian, but took refuge in Rhaeteum. (Diod. 16.91, 17.7.) At the battle of the Granicus, B. C. 334, he led the Thessalian cavalry in Alexander's army; and was appointed by him in the same year to the satrapy of the Lesser or Hellespontine Phrygia, to which Paphlagonia was soon after added. (Arr. Anab. i. p. 14e., ii. p. 31d.; Curt. 3.1.24; Diod. 17.17.) After this we do not hear of Calas : it would seem, however, that he died before the treason and flight of his father in 325 [HARPALUS], as we know from Arrian that Demarchus succeeded him in the satrapy of the Hellespontine Phrygia during Alexander's life-time. (See Droysen, Gesck. der Nach
Calli'sthenes (*Kallisqe/nhs). 1. A philosopher, born at Olynthus. His mother, Hero, was a cousin of Aristotle's, and by him Callisthenes was brought up, studying under him at Stageira, together, as we may infer, with Alexander, and certainly with Theophrastus, with whom Aristotle is said to have contrasted him, saying, that Theophrastus needed the rein, but Callisthenes the spur [but see p. 317b.]. When Alexander set forth on his Asiatic expedition, B. C. 334, he took Callisthenes with him by Aristotle's recommendation. The latter, however, was aware of the faults of his kinsman's character, of his total want of tact and prudence, and of his wrong-headed propensity to the unseasonable exhibition of his independent spirit; and against these he warned him to guard in his intercourse with the king. The warning was give in vain. Callisthenes became indignant at Alexander's adoption of oriental customs, and especially at the requirement of the ceremony of adoration, which he deemed de
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Calvi'nus, T. Vetu'rius was twice consul, in B. C. 334 and 321. In his second consulship he and his colleague Sp. Postumius Albinus commanded the Roman army at Caudium against the Samnites, where the Romans suffered the wellknown defeat, and passed under the yoke. The consuls concluded a treaty with the Samnites; but as this treaty was not approved of by the Romans, the consuls who had concluded it, and several other officers, were delivered up to the Samnites. (Liv. 8.16, 9.1, 6, 10; Appian, Samnit. 6; Cic. De Senec. 12, De Off. 3.30; comp. Niebuhr, Hist. of Rome, iii. p. 211, &c.) [L.S]
Cleander 4. One of Alexander's officers, son of Polemocrates. Towards the winter of B. C. 334, Alexauder, being then in Caria, sent him to the Peloponnesus to collect mercenaries, and with these he returned and joined the king while he was engaged in the siege of Tyre, B. C. 331. (Arr. Anab. 1.24, 2.20; Curt. 3.1.1, 4.3.11.) In B. C. 330 he was employed by Polydamas, Alexander's emissary, to kill Parmenion, under whom he had been left as second in command at Ecbatana. (Arr. Anab. 3.26; Curt. 7.2. §§ 19, 27-32 ; Plut. Alex. 49; Diod. 17.80; Just. 12.5.) On Alexander's arrival in Carmania, B. C. 325, Cleander joined him there, together with some other generals from Media and their forces. But he was accused with the rest of extreme profligacy and oppression, not unmixed with sacrilege, in his command, and was put to death by order of Alexander. (Arr. Anab. 6.27; Diod. 17.106; Plut. Alex. 68; Curt. 10.1. §§ 1-8; Just. 12.
Cleitus 2. A Macedonian, surnamed *Me/las, son of Dropides, and brother to Lanice or Hellanice, nurse of Alexander the Great. He saved Alexander's life at the battle of Granicus, B. C. 334, cutting off with a blow of his sword the arm of Spithridates which was raised to slay the king. At the battle of Arbela, B. C. 331, he commanded, in the right wing, the body of cavalry called *)/Aghma (see Plb. 5.65, 31.3); and when, in B. C. 330, the guards (e(tai=roi) were separated into two divisions, it being considered expedient not to entrust the sole command to any one man, Hephaestion and Cleitus were appointed to lead respectively the two bodies. In B. C. 328, Artabazus resigned his satrapy of Bactria, and the king gave it to Cleitus. On the eve of the day on which he was to set out to take possession of his government, Alexander, then at Maracanda in Sogdiana, celebrated a festival in honour of the Dioscuri, though the day was in fact sacred to Dionysus--a circumstance which afterwards s
Coenus (*Koi=nos), a son of Polemocrates and son-in-law of Parmenion, was one of the ablest and most faithful generals of Alexander the Great in his eastern expedition. In the autumn of B. C. 334, when Alexander was in Caria, and sent those of his soldiers who had been recently married, to Macedonia, to spend the ensuing winter with their wives there, Coenus was one of the commanders who led them back to Europe. In the spring of the year following, Coenus returned with the Macedonians, and joined Alexander at Gordium. He commanded a portion of Alexander's army, and distinguished himself on various occasions. When Alexander had arrived at the river Hyphasis, and was anxious to push his conquests still further, Coenus was the first who had the boldness strongly to urge the necessity of returning, and the king was obliged to follow his advice. But a short time afterwards, when the Macedonian army had actually commenced its return, Coenus died of an illness, and was honoured by the king
Hege'lochus 2. One of Alexander's officers, son of Hippostratus. At the battle of the Granicus, in B. C. 334, he led a body of cavalry which was sent forward to watch the enemy's movements. In the following year Amphotorus was appointed to command the fleet in the Hellespont, and Hegelochus was associated with him as general of the forces, with a commission to drive the Persian garrisons from the islands in the Aegean. In this he was fully successful, the islanders being themselves anxious to throw off the Persan yoke; and he brought the news of his success to Alexander in B. C. 331, when the king was engaged in the foundation of Alexandria. In the same year he commanded a troop of horse at the battle of Arbela ; and in the confession of Philotas, in B. C. 330, he is mentioned as having died in battle. According to the statements of Philotas under the torture, on which, however, no dependence can be placed, Hegelochus, indignant at Alexander's assumption of divine honours, had instig
Mithre'nes (*Miqrh/nhs) or MITHRI'NES (*Miqri/nhs), commander of the Persian force which garrisoned the citadel of Sardes. After the battle of the Granicus (B. C. 334) Mithrines surrendered voluntarily to Alexander, and was treated by him with great distinction. After the battle of Gaugamela (B. C. 331) Alexander appointed him satrap of Armenia. (Arrian, 1.17, 3.16.) [C.P.
Mithrida'tes 5. A Persian of high rank, and son-in law of Dareius Codomannus, who was slain by Alexander with his own hand, at the battle of the Granicus, B. C. 334. (Arrian, Arr. Anab. 1.15.10, 16.5.)
Orontobates (*)Orontoba/ths.) 1. A Persian, who married the daughter of Pixodarus, the usurping satrap of Caria, and was sent by the king to succeed him. On the approach of Alexander (B. C. 334) Orontobates and Memnon [MEMNON] entrenched themselves in Halicarnassus. But at last, despairing of defending it, they set fire to the town, and under cover of the conflagration crossed over to Cos, whither they had previously removed their treasures. Orontes, however, still held the citadel Salmacis, and the towns Myndus, Caunus, Thera, and Callipolis, together with Triopium and the island of Cos. Next year, when at Soli, Alexander learnt that Orontobates had been defeated in a great battle by Ptolemaeus and Asander. It is natural to infer that the places which Orontobates held did not long hold out after his defeat. (Arrian, 1.23, ii. $sect; 7; Curt. 3.7.4.) An officer of the name of Orontobates was present in the army of Dareius at the battle of Gaugamela, being one of the commanders of
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