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etoric. He met with the greatest applause, and the number of his pupils soon increased to 100, every one of whom paid him 1000 drachmae. In addition to this, he made a large income by writing orations ; thus Plutarch (l.c. p. 838) relates that Nicocles, king of Cyprus, gave Isocrates twenty talents for the oration pro\s *Nikokle/a. In this manner he gradually acquired a considerable property, and he was several times called upon to undertake the expensive trierarchy; this happened first in B. C. 355, but being ill, he excused himself through his son Aphareus. In 352 he was called upon again, and in order to silence the calumnies of his enemies, he performed it in the most splendid manner. The oration peri\ a)ntido/sews pro\s *Lusi/maxon refers to that event, though it was written after it. In his earlier years Isocrates lived in the company of Athenian hetaerae (Plut. l.c. p. 839; Athen. 13.592), but at a later period he married Plathane, the widow of the sophist Hippias, whose younge
Le'ptines 5. An Athenian, known only as the proposer of a law taking away all special exemptions from the burden of public charges (a)te/leiai tw=n leitourgiw=n), against which the celebrated oration of Demosthenes is directed, usually known as the oration against Leptines. This speech was delivered in B. C. 355: and the law must have been passed above a year before, as we are told that the lapse of more than that period had already exempted Leptines from all personal responsibility. Hence the efforts of Demosthenes were directed solely to the repeal of the law, not to the punishment of its proposer. It appears that his arguments were successful, and the law was in fact repealed. (See Wolf. Prolegom. ad Demosth. Orat. adv. Leptinem; Liban. Argum. p. 452; Dionys. Ep. ad Amm.. 1.4.)
he was called on, while yet a boy, to undertake leitoupgiai, a demand which Iphicrates resisted. (Arist. Rhet. 2.23.17.) He married the daughter of Timotheus; and in B. C. 356 was chosen commander in the Social war, his father and his father-in-law, according to C. Nepos, being appointed to aid him with their counsel and experience. They were all three impeached by their colleague, CHARES, for alleged misconduct and treachery in the campaign; but Iphicrates and Menestheus were acquitted in B. C. 355. (Nep. Tim. 3; Dion Hal. Dem. p. 667; Rehdantz, Vit. Iphic. &c., 6.7, 7. §§ 5, 7; comp. Diod. 16.21; Wess. ad loc.; Isocr. peri/ a)ntid. § 137.) Menestheus was distinguished for his military skill; and we find him again appointed commander of a squadron of 100 galleys, sent out, in B. C. 335, to check the Macedonians, who had intercepted some Athenian ships on their voyage down from the Euxine. We do not know the exact period of his death, but it took place before B. C. 325. (Plut. Phoc. 7
king which he so improved as to derive from them, so Diodorus tells us, a revenue of 1000 talents, or 243,750l.--a sum, however, which doubtless falls far short of what they yielded annually on the whole. (Diod. 16.8; comp. Strab. vii. p.323; Dem. Olynth. i. p. ll, Philipp. i. p. 50.) effort. From this point there is for some time a pause in the active operations of Philip. He employed it, no doubt, in carefully watching events, the course of which, as for instance the Social war (B. C. 357-355), was of itself tending towards the accomplishment of his ambitious designs. And so well had he disguised these, that although exasperation against him had been excited at Athens, no suspicion of them, no apprehension of real danger appears to have been felt there; and even Demosthenes, in his speech against war with Persi (peri\ summoriw=n), delivered in B. C. 354, as also in that for the Megalopolitans (B. C. 353), makes no mention at all of the Macedonian power or projects (comp. Dem. Phil
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Publi'cola, Vale'rius 6. M. Valerius Publicola, magister equitum to the dictator C. Sulpicius Peticus in B. C. 358, and twice consul, namely, in B. C. 355, with C. Sulpicius Peticus, and in 353, with the same colleague. On the history of the three years above-mentioned see PETICUS. (Liv. 7.12, 17-19.)
own name in letters of gold : another example of that vanity, into which the consciousness of merit often betrays the artist, and which was still more strongly exhibited by his contemporary PARRHASIUS. The time of his death is unknown, for the inference which has been drawn from the eulogium upon him in the oration of Isocrates peri\ a)ntido/sews merely confirms the fact, which is evident from the arguments already adduced as to his age, that he died before the delivery of that oration in B. C. 355 (comp. Harpocrat. s. v.). The story told of the manner of his death, namely, that he choked with laughing at a picture of an old woman which he had just painted (Festus, s.v. Pictor), furnishes another instance of those fictions which the ancient grammarians were so fond of inventing, in order to make the deaths of great men correspond with the character of their lives. In the case of Zeuxis, we would understand the fable to refer to that marvellous power of imitation, which was one of the
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