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Isocrates, On the Peace (ed. George Norlin), section 92 (search)
for in place of holding the citadels of other states, her people saw the day when the enemy was in possession of the AcropolisA Spartan garrison occupied the Acropolis during the rule of the Thirty.; in place of dragging children from their mothers and fathers and taking them as hostages,This the Athenians did at Samos in 440 B.C. See Thuc. 1.115. many of her citizens, living in a state of siege, were compelled to educate and support their children with less than was their due; and in place of farming the lands of other states,The reference is to the cleruchies. See 6, note. for many yearsFrom 413 to 404 B.C. they were denied the opportunity of even setting eyes upon their own fields.
Isocrates, On the Peace (ed. George Norlin), section 98 (search)
parta's strongest allies against Athens. See Thuc. 4.93. had contributed a great number of troops to their land forces, the Lacedaemonians no sooner gained the supremacy than they straightway plotted against the Thebans,Instanced by the treacherous seizure of the Theban citadel (the Cadmea) by the Spartan Phoebidas. See Xen. Hell. 5.2.25 ff. dispatched Clearchus with an army against the King,Cf. Isoc. 12.104. The “ten thousand” mercenaries led by the Spartan Clearchus to support Cyrus against King Artaxerxes were not officially dispatched, although sanctioned, by Sparta. For the fortunes of this army see Isoc. 4.145-149; Isoc. 5.90 ff.; and Xen. Anab. and in the case of the Chians drove into exileAn oligarchy was established there and 600 of the democratic faction were driven into exile. See Dio. Sic. 13.65. the foremost of their citizens and launched their battle-ships from their docks and made off with their whole navy.This was done by Lysander in 404 B.C. See Dio. Sic.
Isocrates, On the Peace (ed. George Norlin), section 123 (search)
but that our democracy itself under the leadership of the former remained unshaken and unchanged for many years,A century, from the reforms of Cleisthenes in 510 to the revolution of 411 B.C. whereas under the guidance of these men it has already, within a short period of time,In 411 and 404 B.C. been twice overthrown, and that, furthermore, our people who were driven into exile under the despots and in the time of the Thirty were restored to the state, not through the efforts of the sycophants,False accusers, slanderers, professional blackmailers—a class of persons which sprang up like weeds in Athens after the age of Pericles. Their favorite device was to extort money by threatening or instituting law-suits. But the word was applied indiscriminately by Isocrates and others to demagogues and politicians of the opposite party. See Lafberg, Sycophancy in Athens. Cf. Aristoph. Pl. 850 ff. The term “flatterers” is used in 4. but through those leaders who despised men of that character<
Isocrates, Plataicus (ed. George Norlin), section 40 (search)
And this could be proved by numerous instances; but as for those which have occurred in our own time at any rate, who does not know that the Lacedaemonians shattered your power,At Aegospotami, 405 B.C. which was thought to be irresistible—although at first they possessed slight resources for the war waged at sea, but they won the Greeks over to their side because of that general belief—and that you in turn took the leadership away from them, although you depended on a city without walls and in evil plight,A reference to the beginning of the Corinthian War, 395 B.C. Athens had been compelled by Sparta to destroy her Long Walls and fortifications after her defeat in 404 B.C. but possessed Justice as your al
Isocrates, Antidosis (ed. George Norlin), section 319 (search)
And with what results? We have been plunged into warThe Peloponnesian War.; we have seen many of our fellow-countrymen suffer, some of them dying in battle, some made prisoners of war, and others reduced to the last extremities of want; we have seen the democracy twice overthrown,First by the oligarchy of the Four Hundred in 411 B.C., secondly by the oligarchy of the Thirty Tyrants in 404 B.C., after the downfall of the Athenian Empire. the walls which defended our country torn downOne of the terms of peace at the end of the war was that the “long walls” connecting Athens with the Piraeus should be torn down.; and, worst of all, we have seen the whole city in peril of being enslaved,After her surrender to Sparta and the allies of Sparta at the close of the Peloponnesian War. See Isoc. 7.6 and note; Xen. Hell. 2.2.19-20. Cf. Isoc. 8.78, 105; Isoc. 14.23. and our enemy encamped on the Acropolis.A Spartan garrison occupied the Acropolis during the reign of the Thir
Isocrates, On the team of horses (ed. George Norlin), section 12 (search)
I think, however, that in justice he should obtain from you a full pardon; for you, when banished by the Thirty Tyrants,After the capture of Athens by the Spartans in 404 B.C. an oligarchy known as the Thirty Tyrants was established. The cruelty of their government caused many of the democratic party to go into exile. Led by Thrasybulus these exiles were restored when the Thirty were overthrown in 403 B.C. experienced the same misfortunes as he. Wherefore you should reflect how each of you was affected, what thoughts you each had, and what peril each would not have undergone so as to bring his own banishment to an end and to return to his native land, and to be avenged on those who banished him.
Isocrates, On the team of horses (ed. George Norlin), section 40 (search)
Well then, when Athens was prosperous, who of the citizens was more prosperous, more admired, or more envied than my father? And when she suffered ill-fortune, who was deprived of brighter hopes, or of greater wealth, or of fairer repute? Finally, when the Thirty Tyrants established their rule, while the others merely suffered exile from Athens, was he not banished from all Greece? Did not the Lacedaemonians and LysanderSpartan general, victorious over the Athenians at Aegospotami (405 B.C.) exert themselves as much to cause his death as to bring about the downfall of your dominion, in the belief that they could not be sure of the city's loyalty if they demolished her wallsThe Long Walls, uniting Athens and its harbor Piraeus, were destroyed in 404 B.C. (Xenophon, Hall. ii. 2. 20) and were rebuilt by Conon in 394 B.C. unless they should also destroy the man who could rebuil
Isocrates, On the team of horses (ed. George Norlin), section 46 (search)
and while still a boy I was banished from the city by the Thirty. And when the men of the PiraeusThe democratic party, led by Thrasybulus, in 403 B.C. had taken Piraeus and made it their headquarters. were restored, and all the rest recovered their possessions, I alone by the influence of my personal enemies was deprived of the of the land which the people gave us as compensation for the confiscated property.After Alcibiades' condemnation as participant in the violation of the Eleusinian Mysteries. Large portions of the list of these confiscated goods are preserved in inscriptions. And after having already suffered so many misfortunes and having twice lost my property,414 B.C. and 404 B.C. I am now the defendant in an action involving five talents.The talent was not a coin, but a sum of money roughly equivalent (although it would purchase much more) to $1000 (over 200). And although the complaint involves money, the real issue is my right to continue to enjoy citiz
Isocrates, Against Lochites (ed. George Norlin), section 10 (search)
And yet why need I waste time in speaking of the calamities of the other states? For we ourselves have twice seen the democracy overthrownIn 411 B.C., by the regime of the Four Hundred, and in 404 B.C. when the Spartans, after the capture of Athens, established the Thirty Tyrants in power. and twice we have been deprived of freedom, not by those who were guilty of other crimes, but by persons who contemned the laws and were willing to be slaves of the enemy while wantonly outraging their fellow-citizens.
Lysias, On the Olive Stump, section 4 (search)
This plot of ground belonged to Peisander; but when his property was confiscated, Apollodorus of Megara had it as a gift from the peoplePeisander was a leader in the revolution of the Four Hundred (411 B.C.) and his property was fortified on the counter-revolution of the Five Thousand in the same year; Apollodorus was rewarded for taking part in the assassination of Phrynichus, another of the Four Hundred. and cultivated it for some time, until, shortly before the Thirty,404 B.C. Anticles bought it from him and let it out. I bought it from Anticles when peace had been made.After the fall of the Thirty and on the intervention of Sparta, 403 B
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