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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Atlantic Telegraph. (search)
eded to the accomplishment of such an enterprise. On March 10, 1854, five gentlemen met at the house of Mr. Field, on Gramercy Park, New York, and signed an agreement for an association called The New York, Newfoundland. and London Telegraph Company. They obtained from the legislature of Newfoundland a charter guaranteeing an exclusive right, for fifty years, to establish a telegraph from the American continent to that island. and thence to Europe. These gentlemen were Peter Cooper, Moses Taylor, Marshall O. Roberts. Chandler White, and Cyrus W. Field. Twenty-five years afterwards. all but one (Mr. White) were living, and again met in the same room, and around the same table whereon that association was signed, with the same attorney of the association then engaged, David Dudley Field. Mr. Cooper was chosen president of the company. Mr. Field procured a cable in England to span the waters between Cape Ray and Cape Breton Island. It was sent out in 1855. and was lost in an
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Bancroft, George, (search)
Democrat in politics, and in 1840 received the nomination for governor of Massachusetts, but was not elected. In 1845 President Polk called Mr. Bancroft to his cabinet as Secretary of the Navy, and he signalized George Bancroft, Ll.D. his administration by the establishment of the Naval Academy at Annapolis. While Secretary of the Navy he gave the order to take possession of California, which was done by the navy; and while acting temporarily as Secretary of War he gave the order for General Taylor to cross the Rio Grande and invade the territory of Mexico. In 1846 Mr. Bancroft was sent as United States minister plenipotentiary to England, and in 1849 the University of Oxford conferred upon him the honorary degree of Doctor of Civil Law. During this residence in Europe he perfected his collection of materials for his history, visiting the public archives and libraries at Paris. Returning to the United States in 1849, he made his residence in New York City, where he prosecuted his
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Bartlett, John Russell, 1805-1886 (search)
1805-1886 Author; born in Providence, R. I., Oct. 23, 1805. He was for six years cashier of the Globe Bank in Providence, and an active member of the Franklin Society for the Cultivation of Science. He was also one of the projectors of the Athenaeum in Providence, and for some time corresponding secretary of the New York Historical Society. Mr. Bartlett was associated with Albert Gallatin as a projector and founder of the American Ethnological Society. In 1850 he was appointed by President Taylor a commissioner, under the treaty of peace with Mexico in 1848, to settle the boundary-line between that country and the United States. He was engaged in that service until Jan. 7, 1853, making extensive surveys and explorations, with elaborate scientific observations; but, owing to a failure of Congress to make the necessary appropriations, he did not complete his work. He published a personal narrative of his experience in that region in 1854. In May, 1855, he was chosen secretary o
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Benham, Henry W., 1817-1884 (search)
Benham, Henry W., 1817-1884 Military officer; born in Cheshire, Conn., in 1817; was graduated at West Point, first in his class, in 1837. He served under General Taylor in the war with Mexico, and was wounded in the battle of Buena. Vista. Early in the Civil War he was active in western Virginia, and afterwards on the South Carolina coast. He assisted in the capture of Fort Pulaski; and in 1863-64 he commanded an engineer brigade in the Army of the Potomac. He was brevetted brigadier-general for services in the campaign ending with the surrender of Lee, and major-general (March, 1865) for meritorious services in the rebellion. He died in New York, June 1, 1884.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Field, Cyrus West 1819-1892 (search)
nd sale of paper on his own account, and in fifteen years became so prosperous that he was able to partially retire. About this time he became interested in ocean telegraphy, and for some time pondered the question whether a cable could not be stretched across the Atlantic. In 1854 he obtained from the Newfoundland legislature the exclusive right for fifty years to land cables on that island to be continued to the United States. He next formed a corporation consisting of Peter Cooper, Moses Taylor, Marshall O. Roberts, and Chandler White, and known as the New York, Newfoundland, and London Telegraph Company, to procure and lay a cable. After many failures and disappointments a cable was successfully laid across the Atlantic in 1866 (see Atlantic Telegraph). For his achievement he received a medal from Congress and the thanks of the nation. In 1867 the Paris Exposition bestowed upon him the grand medal, its highest honor. He also was the recipient of many other medals and honors.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Fillmore, Millard 1800- (search)
n of Texas, and in favor of the abolition of the interstate slavetrade. In September, 1844, Mr. Fillmore was nominated by the Whigs for governor of the State of New York, but was defeated by Silas Wright, the Democratic candidate. Elected comptroller of his State in 1847, Mr. Fillmore filled that responsible office with rare ability and fidelity. In June, 1848, he was nominated by the Whig National Convention for the office of Vice-President of the United States, and was elected, with General Taylor for President. He resigned the office of comptroller in February following; and on the death of the President (July, 1850), Mr. Fillmore was inducted into that high office. During his administration the slavery question was vehemently discussed, and was finally set at rest, it was hoped, by the passage of various acts which were parts of compromises proposed in the omnibus bill (q. v.) of Mr. Clay in the summer of 1850. It was during his administration that difficulties with Cuba o
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Franklin, William Buel 1823- (search)
Franklin, William Buel 1823- Military officer; born in York, Pa., Feb. 27, 1823, graduated at West Point in 1843. In the William Buel Franklin. engineer service, he was actively engaged when the war with Mexico broke out. He served on the staff of General Taylor at the battle of Buena Vista, and was brevetted first lieutenant. Serving as Professor of Natural and Experimental Philosophy at West Point for four years, he occupied the same chair, and that of Civil Engineering, in the New York City Free Academy, in 1852. In May, 1861, he was appointed colonel of the 12th Infantry, and in July was assigned the command of a brigade in Heintzelman's division. He was in the hottest of the fight at Bull Run; was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers in September, and appointed to the command of a division of the Army of the Potomac. Franklin did excellent service in the campaign of the Virginia Peninsula, and on July 4, 1862, was promoted to major-general. He served under McClel
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Garnett, Robert Selden 1819- (search)
Garnett, Robert Selden 1819- Military officer; born in Essex county, Va., Dec. 16, 1819; graduated at the United States Military Academy in 1841; served as aide to General Taylor in the war with Mexico. When the Civil War broke out he resigned from the National army, and in June, 1861, was appointed brigadier-general in the Confederate service, and assigned to the western part of Virginia. In the following month he was met by a large force of the National army at Carrick's Ford, in which action his troops were defeated and himself killed, July 13.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Grant, Ulysses Simpson (search)
Grant, Ulysses Simpson Eighteenth President of the United States; named at birth Hiram Ulysses, but, through an error when he entered the Military Academy, he was given the Christian names which he afterwards adopted; born Ulysses Simpson Grant as Lieutenant in the Mexican War. in Point Pleasant, O., April 27, 1822; graduated at West Point in 1843. He served in the war with Mexico, first under General Taylor, and then under General Scott, taking part in every battle between Vera Cruz and the city of Mexico. He was made captain in 1853, and resigned the next year, when he settled in St. Louis. He was one of the first to offer his services to the national government when the Civil War broke out, but, as no notice was taken of him, became colonel of the 21st Illinois Infantry. In May, 1861, he was appointed a brigadier-general of volunteers, and placed in command at Cairo. He occupied Paducah, broke up the Confederate camp at Belmont, and in February, 1862, captured Forts Hen
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Great Lakes and the Navy, the. (search)
hey all enlisted, which of course would be impossible, would not serve to put the navy on a war footing. The Naval War College has been investigating the various phases that war on our coast might assume, and has found that we shall need a great number of officers, in addition to those of the regular navy. Where are these additional officers to come from? The sources from which they were obtained in 1861 no longer exist, for our deep-sea merchant shipping has practically disappeared. Captain Taylor, of the War College, has given the following brief summary of the present condition of affairs: . . . The same conditions do not exist now as did during the Rebellion. That war, especially on the part of the navy, was offensive and attacked an enemy upon its own coast, and required a large number of deep-sea ships and deepsea officers. The wars for which we must plan, at least for the next few years, are defensive for our part, and to be waged against enemies probably superior
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