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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 444 BC or search for 444 BC in all documents.

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Empedocles, Anaxagoras, and the atomists had done. On the contrary, he made use of the conclusions of the Eleatics, for the purpose of proving that there was nothing which had any existence or reality; and in doing this he paid so much attention to externals, and kept so evidently appearance alone in view, instead of truth, that he was justly reckoned among the sophists. His work, On Nature, or On that which is not, in which he developed his views, and which is said to have been written in B. C. 444 (Olympiod. in Plat. Gorg. p. 567, ed. Routh.), seems to have been lost at an early time (it is doubtful whether Galen, who quotes it, Opera, vol. i. p. 56, ed. Gesner, actually read it); but we possess sufficient extracts from it, to form a definite idea of its nature. The work de Xenoph. Gorgia et Melisso, ascribed to Aristotle or Theophrastus, contains a faithful and accurate account of it, though the text is unfortunately very corrupt: Sextus Empiricus (ad v. Math. 7.65, &c.) is more su
Lampon 2. An Athenian, a celebrated soothsayer and interpreter of oracles. Cratinus satirized him in his comedy entitled *Drapeti/des (Meineke, Fragm. Com. ii. ]. p. 42, 51). Aristophanes also alludes to him (Av. 521, 988). Plutarch (Plut. Per. 6) has a story of his foretelling the ascendancy of Pericles over Thucydides and his' party. In B. C. 444, Lampon, in conjunction with Xenocritus, led the colony which founded Thurii on the site of the ancient Sybaris. (Diod. 12.10; Schol. ad Aristoph. Nub. 331, Av. 521, Pax, 1083; Suidas, s. v. *Dourioma/nteis.) The name Lampon is found amongst those who took the oaths to the treaty of peace made between the Athenians and Lacedaemonians in B. C. 421. (Thuc. 5.19, 24.) Whether this was the soothsayer of that name, or not, we have no means of deciding. [C.P.M]
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Longus, L. Ati'lius was one of the first three consular tribunes, elected B. C. 444. In consequence of a defect in the auspices, he and his colleagues resigned, and consuls were appointed in their stead. (Liv. 4.7; Dionys. A. R. 11.61.)
Mugilla'nus 1. L. Papirius Mugillanus, L. F., was consul for the first time in B. C. 444, and for the second in B. C. 427. No remarkable event signalised either of his consulates, but Mugillanus was one of the original pair of Censors. (Liv. 4.7, 8, 30; Dionys. A. R. 11.62; Fasti.)
Mys (*Mu=s), an artist in the toreutic department, engraved the battle of the Lapithae and the Centaurs and other figures on the shield of Phidias's colossal bronze statue of Athena Promachos, in the Acropolis of Athens. (Paus. 1.28.2.) If we are to believe Pausanias, these works were executed from designs by Parrhasius, who flourished half a century later than Phidias. It is probable that there is a mistake in the passage of Pausanias, and that Mys ought to be considered as a contemporary of Phidias, about B. C. 444. (Sillig, s. v.) He is mentioned as one of the most distinguished engravers by Pliny (Plin. Nat. 33.12. s. 55), Propertius (3.7. 14), Martial (8.33, 50, 14.93), and Statius (Stat. Silv. 1.3. 50). [P.
ii had ever been patricians (ad Fam. 9.21). Cicero states that the Papirii were originally called Papisii, and that the first person who adopted the former form of the name was L. Papirius Crassus, consul, B. C. 336. We learn front the same authority that the patrician Papirii belonged to the minores gentes, and that they were divided into the families of CRASSUS, CURSOR, MAISO, and MUGILLANUS: and that the plebeian Papirii consisted of the families of CARBO, PAETUS, and TURDUS. The most ancient family was that of Mugillanus, and the first member of the gens who obtained the consulship was L. Paspeaking pirius Mugillanus, in B. C. 444. The gens, however, was of still higher antiquity than this, and is referred by tradition to the kingly period. The Papirius who composed the collection of the Leges Regiae, is said to have lived in the reign of Tarquinius Superbus (see below); and one M'. Papirius was the first rex sacrificulus appointed on the expulsion of the kings (Dionys. A. R. 5.1
n Ol. 108, 2, or B. C. 347. But this tale has quite the air of a fiction; and it is rejected, as unworthy of attention, by all the authorities except Sillig and Meyer, the latter of whom makes the extraordinary mistake of bringing down the life of Parrhasius as late as the time of Alexander the Great. On the other hand, the statement of Pausanias (1.28.2), that he drew the outlines of the chasing on the shield of Pheidias's statue of Athena Promachus, would place him as early as Ol. 84, or B. C. 444, unless we accept the somewhat improbable conjecture of Müller, that the chasing on the shield was executed several years later than the statue. (Comp. MYS, and Sillig, Catal. Artif. s. v. Mys.) Now this date is probably too early, for Pliny places Parrhasius's father, Evenor, at the 90th Olympiad, B. C. 420 (H. N. 35.9. s. 36.1). According to thils date Parrhasius himself must have flourished about the 95th Olympiad, B. C. 400, which agrees with all the certain, indications which we have
Pausa'nias 2. Son of Pleistoanax, and grandson of the preceding. He succeeded to the throne on the banishment of his father (B. C. 444), being placed under the guardianship of his uncle Cleomenes. He accompanied the latter, at the head of the Lacedaemonian army, in the invasion of Attica, B. C. 427. (Thuc. 3.26.) We next hear of him in B. C. 403, when Lysander, with a large body of troops, was blockading Thrasybulus and his partisans in Peiraeus. The king, the ephors, and many of the leading men in Sparta, being jealous of the increasing influence of Lysander, a plan was concerted for baffling his designs. Pausanias was sent at the head of an army into Attica, professedly to assist Lysander, but in reality to counteract his plans. He accordingly encamped near Peiraeeus. The besieged, not knowing his intentions, attacked him as he was ostensibly reconnoitring the ground to make preparations for a circumvallation. He defeated the assailants with some slaughter, but did not follow up h
e threw Pericles the latter always managed to persuade the spectators that he had never been down. The contest between the two parties was brought to an issue in B. C. 444. Thucydides and his party opposed the lavish expenditure of the public treasure on the magnificent and expensive buildings with which Pericles was adorning the c Andros, among the Thracians, and in the Thracian Chersonesus. The settlement at Sinope has been already spoken of. The important colony of Thurii was founded in B. C. 444. Amphipolis was founded by Hagnon in B. C. 437. These colonies also served the very important purpose of drawing off from Athens a large part of the more troubleed at an early period, that the privileges of citizenship should be confined to those whose parents were both Athenians; a law which was called into exercise ill B. C. 444, on the occasion of a present of corn being sent by Psammetichus from Egypt, to be distributed among the Athenian citizens. At the scrutiny which was set on foot
observe the principle on which the dates are generally chosen by Pliny, namely, with reference to some important epoch of Greek history. Thus the 84th Olympiad (B. C. 444-440), at which he places Pheidias, is evidently chosen because the first year of that Olympiad was the date at which Pericles began to have the sole administratieasury of Athens was continually augmented by the contributions levied from the revolted allies. There is, indeed, no dispute as to the fact that the period from B. C. 444 to the breaking out of the Peloponnesian War, B. C. 431. was that during which the most important works of art were executed, under the administration of Pericles and Nesiotes, as Th=s palaia=s e)rgasi/as, while Pliny, in his loose way, makes him, and Alcamenes, and Critics and Nesiotes, all rivals of Pheidias in Ol. 84, B. C. 444 [HEGIAS]. Of the artists, whose names are thus added to those first mentioned, we know that Critios and Nesiotes executed works about B. C. 477 [CRITIOS]; and On
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