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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Democratic societies. (search)
Democratic societies. In imitation of the Jacobin clubs in Paris, members of The contrast. the Republican party, at about the time when Genet arrived from France, formed secret associations, which they called Democratic societies. Their ideas and feelings were almost wholly French, and a large proportion of their membership consisted of French people. They were disloyal to the government of the United States, and sought to control the politics of the Union. They seem to have been inspired with the fanaticism which at that time controlled France. They vigorously denounced and opposed Washington's proclamation of neutrality. The societies existed in various States, and first introduced the word Democrat into American politics. Many of the Republican party would not adopt the word, preferring the old name, until the combined opposition became known as the Democratic Republican party. The Democratic societies flourished for a while with great vigor. Their members were pledg
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Directory, French, (search)
Directory, French, The name given to the government of the French Republic, established by a constitution in August, 1795, framed by the moderate republican party after the fall of Robespierre and the end of the Reign of Terror. The executive directory consisted of five persons, who promulgated the laws, appointed the ministers, and had the management of military and naval affairs. They decided questions by a majority vote, and presided, by turns, three months each, the presiding member having the signature and the seal. During their terms of office none of them could have a personal command, or absent himself for more than five days from the place where the council held its sessions without its permission. The legislative power, under the constitution, was vested in two assemblies, the Council of Five Hundred and the Council of the Ancients, the former having the exclusive right of preparing laws for the consideration of the latter. The judicial authority was committed to el
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Elizabeth, Queen of England (search)
Elizabeth, Queen of England Born in Greenwich, Sept. 7, 1533; daughter of Henry VIII. and Anne Boleyn. Under the tuition of Roger Ascham she acquired much proficiency in classical learning, and before she was seventeen years of age she was mistress of the Latin, French, and Italian languages, and had read several works in Greek. By education she was attached to the Protestant Church, and was persecuted by her half-sister, Mary, who was a Roman Catholic. Elizabeth never married. When quite young her father negotiated for her nuptials with the son of Francis I. of France, but it failed. She flirted awhile with the ambitious Lord Seymour. In 1558 she declined an offer of marriage from Eric, King of Sweden, and also from Philip of Spain. Her sister Mary died Nov. 17, 1558, when Elizabeth was proclaimed Queen of England. With caution she proceeded to restore the Protestant religion to ascendency in her kingdom. Her reform began by ordering a large part of the church service
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Everett, Edward, 1794-1865 (search)
hour's hesitation should ensue in the advance of any portion of the entire army. Having assumed the chief command on the 28th, General Meade directed his left wing, under Reynolds, upon Emmettsburg, and his right upon New Windsor, leaving General French, with 11,000 men, to protect the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and convoy the public property from Harper's Ferry to Washington. Buford's cavalry was then at this place, and Kilpatrick's at Hanover, where he encountered and defeated the rear ating army, General Lee reached Williamsport in safety, and took up a strong position opposite to that place. General Meade necessarily pursued with the main army, by a flank movement, through Middletown, Turner's Pass having been secured by General French. Passing through the South Mountain, the Union army came up with that of the rebels on the 12th, and found it securely posted on the heights of Marsh Run. The position was reconnoitred, and preparation made for an attack on the 13th. The d
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Florida, (search)
, in the following year, Don Galvez took possession of Pensacola, capturing or driving away the British there, and soon afterwards completed the conquest of the whole of west Florida. The success of Napoleon's arms in Spain and the impending peril to the Spanish monarchy gave occasion for revolutionary movements in the Spanish province of west Florida bordering on the Mississippi early in 1810. That region undoubtedly belonged to the United States as a part of Louisiana bought from the French, but Spain had refused to relinquish it. The inhabitants were mostly of British or American birth. Early in the autumn of 1810 they seized the fort at Baton Rouge, met in convention, and proclaimed themselves independent, adopting a single star for their flag, as the Texans did in 1836. There were some conflicts between the revolutionists and adherents of the Spanish connection, and an attack upon the insurgents seemed imminent from the Spanish garrison at Mobile. Through Holmes, governor
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Franchere, Gabriel 1786- (search)
Franchere, Gabriel 1786- Pioneer; born in Montreal, Canada, Nov. 3, 1786; was connected with the American fur company organized by John Jacob Astor, and did much to develop the fur trade in the Rocky Mountains and the northern Pacific coast. He published a History of the Astor expeditions, in French, which was the first work containing detailed accounts of the Northwest Territory. When he died, in St. Paul, Minn., in 1856, he was the last survivor of the Astor expedition.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Fredericksburg, battle at. (search)
rate right to the Massaponax, where the contest continued until dark. Meanwhile, Couch's corps had occupied the city, with Wilcox's between his and Franklin's. At noon Couch attacked the Confederate front with great vigor. Kimball's brigade, of French's division, led, Hancock's following. Longstreet was posted on Marye's Hill, just back of the town. Upon his troops the Nationals fell heavily, while missiles from the Confederate cannon made great lanes through their ranks. After a brief strurossed the river with three divisions. He was so satisfied with the hopelessness of any further attacks upon the strong position of the Confederates, that he begged Burnside to desist. He would not yield. Hooker sent 4,000 men in the track of French, Hancock, and Howard, to attack with bayonets only. These were hurled back by terrific volleys of rifleballs, leaving 1,700 of their number prostrate on the field. Night soon closed the awful conflict, when the Army of the Potomac had 15,000 le
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Free thought. (search)
nder the burden of tithe and fabrique. Many of the habitants go into the Northern States of the Union for work, and return to their own country bringing with them republican ideas. Americans who have been shunning continental union from dread of French-Canadian popery may lay aside their fears. It was a critical moment for the Catholic Church when she undertook to extend her domain to the American Republic. She had there to encounter a genius radically opposed to her own. The remnant of Catll as political, while the wit of its people was proverbially keen and their nationality was jealous as well as strong. The papacy may call itself universal; in reality, it is Italian. During its sojourn in the French dominions the popes were French: otherwise they have been Italians, native or domiciled, with the single exception of the Flemish Adrian VI., thrust into the chair of St. Peter by his pupil, Charles V., and by the Italians treated with contumely as an alien intruder. The great
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