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Browsing named entities in Aristotle, Politics. You can also browse the collection for Athens (Greece) or search for Athens (Greece) in all documents.

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Aristotle, Politics, Book 3, section 1275b (search)
r further. But given this as a practical and hasty definition, some people raise the difficulty, How will that ancestor three or four generations back have been a citizen? GorgiasSicilian orator and nihilistic philosopher, visited Athens 427 B.C. of Leontini therefore, partly perhaps in genuine perplexity but partly in jest, said that just as the vessels made by mortar-makers were mortars, so the citizens made by the magistrates were Larisaeans, since some ofiginal colonizers or founders of a city.But perhaps a question rather arises about those who were admitted to citizenship when a revolution had taken place, for instance such a creation of citizens as that carried outIn 509 B.C. at Athens by Cleisthenes after the expulsion of the tyrants, when he enrolled in his tribes many resident aliens who had been foreigners or slaves. The dispute as to these is not about the fact of their citizenship, but whether they received
Aristotle, Politics, Book 5, section 1307a (search)
to democracy and an aristocracy to oligarchy, or to the opposite extremes, that is, aristocracy to democracy (for the poorer people feeling they are unjustly treated pull it round to the opposite) and constitutional governments to oligarchy (for the only lasting thing is equality in accordance with desert and the possession of what is their own). And the change mentionedi.e. from aristocracy to democracy. Possibly these events occurred after the defeat of Athens at Syracuse in 413 B.C., when the Athenian party at Thurii was banished (Lysias 835 D). The events in 8 were perhaps in the fourth century. came about at Thurii, for because the property-qualification for honors was too high, the constitution was altered to a lower property-qualification and to a larger number of official posts, but because the notables illegally bought up the whole of the land (for the constitution was too oligarchical, so that they wer
Aristotle, Politics, Book 5, section 1305b (search)
revolution of the constitution.On the other hand, oligarchies are overthrown from within themselves bothThis sentence is interrupted by a parenthesis and is resumed in 5.6, ‘And revolution is oligarchy also—’. when from motives of rivalry they play the demagogue (and this demagogy is of two sorts, one among the oligarchs themselves, for a demagogue can arise among them even when they are a very small body,—as for instance in the time of the Thirty at Athens, the party of Charicles rose to power by currying popularity with the Thirty, and in the time of the Four HundredSee 1304b 12 n. the party of Phrynichus rose in the same way,—the other when the members of the oligarchy curry popularity with the mob, as the Civic Guards at LarisaSee 1275b 29 n. courted popularity with the mob because it elected them, and in all the oligarchies in which the magistracies are not elected by the class from which the magist
Aristotle, Politics, Book 6, section 1319b (search)
ally took place and caused the revolution at CyreneIn N. Africa. Diodorus (Diod. 14.34) describes a revolution there in 401 B.C., when five hundred of the rich were put to death and others fled, but after a battle a compromise was arranged.; for a small base element is overlooked, but when it grows numerous it is more in evidence.A democracy of this kind will also find useful such institutions as were employed by CleisthenesSee 1275b 36 n. at Athens when he wished to increase the power of the democracy, and by the party setting up the democracy at Cyrene; different tribes and brotherhoods must be created outnumbering the old ones, and the celebrations of private religious rites must be grouped together into a small number of public celebrations, and every device must be employed to make all the people as much as possible intermingled with one another, and to break up the previously existing groups of a
Aristotle, Politics, Book 5, section 1313b (search)
eople being busy with their daily affairs may not have leisure to plot against their ruler. Instances of this are the pyramids in Egypt and the votive offerings of the Cypselids,Cypselus and his son Periander (1310b 29 n., 1284a 26 n.) dedicated a colossal statue of Zeus at Olympia and other monuments there and at Delphi. and the building of the temple of Olympian Zeus by the PisistratidaePisistratus is said to have begun the temple of Olympian Zeus at Athens, not finished till the time of Hadrian. and of the temples at Samos, works of PolycratesTyrant of Samos, d. 522 B.C. (for all these undertakings produce the same effect, constant occupation and poverty among the subject people); and the levying of taxes, as at Syracuse (for in the reign of DionysiusSee 1259a 28 n. the result of taxation used to be that in five years men had contributed the whole of their substance). Also the tyrant is a s
Aristotle, Politics, Book 5, section 1310b (search)
e Ionian tyrantse.g. Thrasybulus, tyrant of Miletus, 612 B.C. and PhalarisTyrant of Agrigentum 572 B.C. arose from offices of honor, and Panaetius at Leontini and Cypselus at Corinth and PisistratusSee 1305a 23 n. at Athens and DionysiusSee 1259a 28 n. at Syracuse and others in the same manner from the position of demagogue. Therefore, as we said, royalty is ranged in correspondence with aristocracy, for it goes by merit, either by private virtred benefit or because they had the ability to confer benefit on their cities or their nations, some having prevented their enslavement in war, for instance Codrus,The usual tradition was that Codrus was already king when he saved Athens by sacrificing his life. others having set them free, for instance Cyrus,Cyrus liberated Persia from the Median empire 559 B.C. or having settled or acquired territory, for instance the kings of Sparta and Macedon and the Molossi
Aristotle, Politics, Book 3, section 1287a (search)
rly not just, men say, for one person to be governor when all the citizens are alike. It may be objected that any case which the law appears to be unable to define, a human being also would be unable to decide. But the law first specially educates the magistrates for the purpose and then commissions them to decide and administer the matters that it leaves over ‘according to the best of their judgement,’This formula came in the oath taken by the dicasts at Athens. and furthermore it allows them to introduce for themselves any amendment that experience leads them to think better than the established code. He therefore that recommends that the law shall govern seems to recommend that God and reason alone shall govern, but he that would have man govern adds a wild animal also; for appetite is like a wild animal, and also passion warps the rule even of the best men. Therefore the law is wisdom without desire. And there seems
Aristotle, Politics, Book 2, section 1268a (search)
ate of the law he thought unsatisfactory, since it forces jurors to commit perjury by giving either the one verdict or the other. He proposed a law that those who discovered something of advantage to the state should receive honor, and that the children of those who died in war should have their maintenance from the state, in the belief that this had never yet been provided by law among other people—but as a matter of fact this law exists at present both at Athens and in others of the cities. The governing officials were all to be chosen by the assembly of the people, and this he made to consist of the three classes of the city; and the officials elected were to superintend the business of the community and the affairs of foreign residents and of orphans. These then are the greatest number and the most noteworthy of the provisions in the system of Hippodamus. But doubt might be raised first of all about the division
Aristotle, Politics, Book 5, section 1304b (search)
rce and sometimes fraud. Force is employed either when the revolutionary leaders exert compulsion immediately from the start or later on—as indeed the mode of using fraud is also twofold: sometimes the revolutionaries after completely deceiving the people at the first stage alter the constitution with their consent, but then at a later stage retain their hold on it by force against the people's will: for instance, at the time of the Four Hundred,The oligarchy at Athens 411 B.C., cf. 1305a 27. they deceived the people by saying that the Persian King would supply money for the war against the Spartans, and after telling them this falsehood endeavored to keep a hold upon the government; but in other cases they both persuade the people at the start and afterwards repeat the persuasion and govern them with their consent.Speaking generally therefore in regard to all the forms of constitution, the causes that have been stated
Aristotle, Politics, Book 1, section 1252b (search)
d, and HesiodHes. WD 405. was right when he wrote First and foremost a house and a wife and an ox for the ploughing— for the ox serves instead of a servant for the poor. The partnership therefore that comes about in the course of nature for everyday purposes is the ‘house,’ the persons whom CharondasA law-giver of Catana in Sicily, 6th century B.C. or earlier. speaks of as ‘meal-tub-fellows’ and the Cretan EpimenidesA poet and prophet invited to Athens 596 B.C. to purify it of plague. as ‘manger-fellows.’The variant reading o(moka/pnous, ‘smoke-sharers,’ seems to mean ‘hearth-fellows.’ On the other hand the primary partnership made up of several households for the satisfaction of not mere daily needs is the village. The village according to the most natural account seems to be a colony fromPerhaps the Greek should be altered to give ‘consists of colonies from.’ a ho
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